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Flashcards in Introduction to HLSD Deck (23):
1

nature influence on development?

genetic or hereditary influences

2

nurture influence on development?

experimental or environmental influences

3

continuous?

development that occurs in a smooth progression e.g. height

4

discontinuity?

development that occurs in a series of abrupt shifts e.g. locomotion

5

life-cycle forces?

how same event affects people of different ages

6

what is a theory?

an organised set of ideas that is designed to explain developement

7

major theoretical perspectives on human development?

-psychodynamic (freud, erikson)
-learning (watson, skinnerm bandura)
-cognitive (piaget, kohlberg)
-ecological and systems (bronfenbrenner, lawton and nahemow)
-lifespan (baltes)

8

what is psychodynamic - freud?

-human behaviour largely governed by motives and drives that are internal and often unconcious

9

what are 5 stages of psychosexual development according to freud?

-oral (0-1 yrs) weaning
-anal (1-3 yrs) toilet training
-phallic (3-6 yrs) identifying with adult role models
-latency (6-12 yrs) expanding social contacts
-genital (12+ yrs) establishing family and next generation

10

behaviourism?

skinner - operant conditioning - consequence of behaviour determine whether it will be repeated

11

social learning theory (bandura)?

-people learn by watching others
-more likely to imitate those who we admire

12

piaget's stages?

-sensorimotor (0-2)
-preoperational (2-6)
-concrete operational thought (7-early adolescence)
-formal operational thought (adolescence-beyond)

13

hardware?

brain structures related to learning, memory, problem solving

14

software?

processes that are run programs (doing addition, typing, painting a picture)

15

bronfenbrenner's theory?

-the microsystem (people and objects in immediate environment)
-the mesosystem (created from connections between microsystems)
-the exosystem (social, environmental, and governmental forces)
-the macrosystem (subcultures and cultures in which the other 3 systems are embedded)

16

4 key features of paul baltes life-span perspective?

-multi-directionality
-plasticity
-historical context
-multiple causation

17

3 processes of compensation?

1. selection
2. compensation
3. optimisation

18

1. selection?

choose goals, life domains and life tasks?

19

what is elective selection?

when choices are voluntary

20

what is loss-based selection?

choice forced due to loss of resources or changes in the environment

21

2. compensation?

an alternative method of achieving goal

22

3. optimisation?

best match between resources (bio-psycho-social) and desired goals. need to balance goals and compensating where necessary

23

what are key issues in field of hlsd?

-nature/nurture
-continuity/discontinuity
-universal/specific