Flashcards in Introduction to HLSD Deck (23):
nature influence on development?
genetic or hereditary influences
nurture influence on development?
experimental or environmental influences
development that occurs in a smooth progression e.g. height
development that occurs in a series of abrupt shifts e.g. locomotion
how same event affects people of different ages
what is a theory?
an organised set of ideas that is designed to explain developement
major theoretical perspectives on human development?
-psychodynamic (freud, erikson)
-learning (watson, skinnerm bandura)
-cognitive (piaget, kohlberg)
-ecological and systems (bronfenbrenner, lawton and nahemow)
what is psychodynamic - freud?
-human behaviour largely governed by motives and drives that are internal and often unconcious
what are 5 stages of psychosexual development according to freud?
-oral (0-1 yrs) weaning
-anal (1-3 yrs) toilet training
-phallic (3-6 yrs) identifying with adult role models
-latency (6-12 yrs) expanding social contacts
-genital (12+ yrs) establishing family and next generation
skinner - operant conditioning - consequence of behaviour determine whether it will be repeated
social learning theory (bandura)?
-people learn by watching others
-more likely to imitate those who we admire
-concrete operational thought (7-early adolescence)
-formal operational thought (adolescence-beyond)
brain structures related to learning, memory, problem solving
processes that are run programs (doing addition, typing, painting a picture)
-the microsystem (people and objects in immediate environment)
-the mesosystem (created from connections between microsystems)
-the exosystem (social, environmental, and governmental forces)
-the macrosystem (subcultures and cultures in which the other 3 systems are embedded)
4 key features of paul baltes life-span perspective?
3 processes of compensation?
choose goals, life domains and life tasks?
what is elective selection?
when choices are voluntary
what is loss-based selection?
choice forced due to loss of resources or changes in the environment
an alternative method of achieving goal
best match between resources (bio-psycho-social) and desired goals. need to balance goals and compensating where necessary