Eating Disorders Flashcards Preview

Intro to Abnormal Psychology > Eating Disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Eating Disorders Deck (41)
Loading flashcards...
1

Eating disorders

- Epidemic in Western world
- Prevalence has increased dangerously
- Standards to thinness are increasingly difficult to achieve

2

EDs in the fashion industry

- Several cases in the fashion industry that led to death of models
- Some countries made it illegal for models to be below a certain body weight

3

Changes in ideal body type over time

- Apply to both men and women
- Desired BMI progressively lower over time

4

Prevalence of specific EDs

- Bulimia: 1%
- Anorexia: 1%
- Binge eating: 3%
- Other ED: 5%

5

Key features of EDs

- Body Image Disturbance
- Impairment/Distress

6

Spectrum of disorder

See notes

7

Body image disturbance

- Overestimate actual body size
- Unrealistically low ideal body size
- Social comparison
- Body dissatisfaction (can be unrelated to weight)

8

Binge eating

- Eating an unusually large amount of food (1200-4000 calories in 2 hours) - but context matters, especially with the prevalence of high calorie restaurant meals!
- Lack of control
- Typically dessert/snack foods
- Most likely at home, alone, at night, or after unstructured activity
- Often in a negative mood

9

Purging behaviours

- Attempts to compensate for binge eating or prevent
weight gain
- Can include:
1) Fasting
2) Self-induced vomiting
3) Laxative misuse
4) Diuretics (peeing it out)
5) Excessive exercise (situation dependent and interferes with other activities; inappropriate times and settings)
6) Enemas (injection of fluid into rectum to expel contents)
7) Chewing/spitting out food

10

Maintaining factors of purging behaviours

See notes

11

Anorexia nervosa

- Restriction of energy intake relative to requirements leading to significantly low weight
AND
- Intense fear of gaining weight or behaviors to avoid weight gain
- Disturbance in perception of weight or influence of weight on self-evaluation

12

Types of anorexia nervosa

- Restricting type: dieting, fasting, excessive exercise
- Binge/purge type: binging isn't super often though

13

Bulimia nervosa

- Binges with lack of control
- Behaviors to prevent weight gain
- Purging
- Fasting
- Occurs at least once a week (for a few months)
- Self-evaluation unduly influenced by body shape and
weight

14

Differences between anorexia and bulimia

- Major difference between anorexia and bulimia is that bulimics aren't significantly underweight
- More accurate in determining their current weight

15

Calories consumed during binge vs. calories retained after purge

- Women were retaining AT LEAST half of their calories if not more
- Purging isn't an effective way of eliminating calories
- Ceiling of eliminating about 2000 calories and not any more

16

Binge eating disorder

Binges without purging, fasting

17

Pica

- Eating non-edible, non-food items
- Usually in children or neurological damage

18

Rumination disorder

Regurgitation and (possible) rechewing of food

19

Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder

Not eating, for a number of reasons (e.g. forgetting)

20

Other specified feeding/eating disorder

- Symptoms of AN or BN but not enough for either diagnosis
- Clinically significant impairment/distress

21

Are eating disorders culture-bound disorders?

- Differences across time: Increased rates in
those born after 1945 than before 1945
- Different incidence across countries: Higher rates in
“westernized” countries (e.g. US and Netherlands vs. Curacao)

22

Curacao differences by race

- No cases in majority black population
- All cases were in minority white population (most had been abroad to US or Netherlands)
- Larger female bodies are considered more attractive in Curacao

23

Sociocultural factors

- Thinner beauty ideal
- Exposure to thin ideal (e.g. magazines, TV, movies)
- Friends' attitudes
- Athlete (in a sport where weight matters such as figure skating)

24

What might protect people from eating disorders?

Sports in general, where weight doesn't matter, might protect females from developing one

25

Gender

- Males comprise 10% - 25% of those with AN or BN
- 10x risk in gay or bisexual men
- BN more likely
- Excessive exercise most common compensatory strategy

26

Muscle dysphoria

- Preoccupation with muscle size/body mass
- Form of Body Dysmorphic Disorder = preoccupation
with certain parts of the body; perceive parts as irregular or unattractive
- Commonly co-occurs with eating disordered behavior

27

Genetic risks for AN/BN

- 56% heritability for AN
- 41% in BN

28

Neural correlates in AN/BN

- Reduced functioning of hypothalamus (regulates eating) in AN; altered dopamine -> change in reward
- Low serotonin -> cravings for BN

29

Psychological factors (emotions)

Depressive symptoms; may be a cause, consequence or correlate of eating disorders

30

Types of binge eating patterns

- Dieting subtype: Attempts to lose weight
- Depressive subtype: Attempts to regulate emotions; poorer prognosis