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Intro to Abnormal Psychology > Mood Disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Mood Disorders Deck (67)
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1

How do mood disorders differ from mood?

Disorders involve disabling mood disturbance. Differs from sadness/happiness in intensity, duration, impairment and associated symptoms.

2

What qualifies as a major depressive episode?

≥ 5 symptoms, nearly daily, for ≥ 2 weeks

3

Defining characters of major depressive episode

Sad/depressed OR loss of interest in usual activities (anhedonia)

4

Symptoms of major depressive episode

- Significant change in weight or appetite
- Difficulties in sleeping
- Psychomotor retardation/agitation (slow down/can't sit still)
- Loss of energy or fatigue
- Worthlessness or guilt
- Difficulty concentrating or making decisions
- Recurrent thoughts of suicide or death

5

Major depressive disorder (MDD)

≥ 1 episode of depression

6

Lifetime prevalence of MDD

16% (most common in 18-29 year olds)

7

Average age of onset of MDD

25 years

8

Sex/cultural differences in MDD

- Affects rates and presentation of symptoms
- Greater in women, Latinx/Hispanic
- Less in African Americans

9

Persistent depressive disorder

Milder depressed mood for most of the day more days than not for ≥ 2 years

10

Premenstrual dysphoric disorder

Severe, disabling form of PMS

11

Biological factors for MDD

35% heritability. Involves genetic, neuroendocrine and neurotransmitter related factors.

12

Genetic factors for MDD

- Multiple genes
- Interact with environmental stress

13

Neuroendocrine factors for MDD

- Chronically elevated cortisol
- HPA hyperactivity
- Related to early stress (childhood stress)
- Reduces neurogenesis (generation of neurons)

14

Neurotransmitters involved in MDD

- Low serotonin = poor regulation of sleep, emotion, appetite
- Permissive hypothesis = serotonin -> dysregulation of norepinephrine and dopamine
- Balance of NTs important

15

Beck's negative cognitive triad

Negative views of self, world, future

16

Cognitive distortions

- All or nothing: it's all bad
- Catastrophizing: thinking the worst will happen
- Mental filter: dwelling on negative details
- Overgeneralization: a negative event is likely to happen again and again
- Personalization: self-blame

17

Learned helplessness theory

Serves as a behavioral explanation. People may become depressed because they learn to view
themselves as helpless to control their environment.

18

Cognitive vulnerabilities

- Negative cognitive triad
- Internal, stable and global attributions
- Rumination

19

Internal attribution

Blaming oneself for a situation

20

Stable attribution

Event was due to unchanging, permanent factors and will happen again

21

Anxious features subtype of depression

Prominent anxiety symptoms as well as depressive symptoms

22

Mixed features subtype of depression

Meet the criteria for a major depressive disorder and have at least 3 symptoms of mania, but they do not meet the full criteria for a manic episode.

23

Melancholic features subtype of depression

Physiological symptoms of depression are particularly prominent (e.g. weight loss, psychomotor retardation); anhedonia

24

Psychotic features subtype of depression

Experience delusions and hallucinations; can be mood-congruent (related to typical themes of depression such as worthlessness) or mood-incongruent

25

Catatonic features subtype of depression

Catatonic behaviors: not actively relating to environment, mutism, posturing, agitation, mimicking another’s speech or movements

26

Atypical features subtype of depression

Odd assortment of symptoms (e.g. positive mood reactions to some events, significant weight gain or increase in appetite, hypersomnia, sensitivity to interpersonal rejection)

27

Seasonal pattern subtype of depression

History of at least two years in which major depressive episodes occur during one season of the year (usually the winter) and then the person fully recovers when the season is over (e.g. SAD)

28

Peripartum onset subtype of depression

Onset during/after pregnancy

29

Global attribution

Will happen in many situations (e.g. I lost my job, so everything else in my life will also go wrong)

30

Rumination

Repetitive focus on emotions and symptoms of distress and their causes and consequences - lead to increased awareness and reduced problem solving