Psychotic Disorders Flashcards Preview

Intro to Abnormal Psychology > Psychotic Disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Psychotic Disorders Deck (73)
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1

Psychosis

Inability to differentiate between what is real and what is unreal

2

Negative symptoms

Loss of normal function. Can include symptoms such as lack of pleasure (anhedonia), lack of emotion, lack of motivations, etc.

3

Positive symptoms

Excesses or distortions, such as delusions, hallucinations and disorganized speech.

4

Schizophrenia

Chronic and severe psychotic disorder

5

Active phase of schizophrenia

Basically psychosis. Involves disturbance of thoughts, behaviours and emotions.

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Why is schizophrenia known as a heterogeneous disorder?

There are a number of symptoms that aren't shared among all the individuals with the disorder; so not very easy to point to one thing that characterizes it (e.g. depression -> sadness, panic disorder -> panic attacks) - so two individuals with the disorder may not look anything alike

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DSM-5 criteria for schizophrenia

2 or more active phase* symptoms for > 1 month
- *Delusions
- *Hallucinations
- *Disorganized Speech
- Disorganized or catatonic behavior
- Negative Symptoms
Continuous signs > 6 months (basically chronic)

8

Symptom presentation of schizophrenia

- Acute
- Prodromal
- Residual

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Acute symptoms

Significant symptoms are present and cause marked
impairment in functioning

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Prodromal symptoms

Milder symptoms present for at least 1-2 years before first acute episode

11

Residual symptoms

Milder symptoms between acute episodes

12

Types of hallucination

- Auditory: Hearing voices; most common (e.g. might speak in 3rd person, might command individual to do things, might be running commentaries)
- Visual: e.g Seeing a figure
- Olfactory: e.g. Smelling burning
- Tactile: e.g. Bugs crawling on skin
- Somatic: e.g. Stomach rotting

13

Wernicke and Broca's areas during hallucinations

Broca's area (language production), but not Wernicke's (language comprehension), was activated during hallucinations, which suggests that auditory hallucinations have more to do with generating words than listening to them - brain can't recognize difference between thoughts and speech.

14

Types of delusions related to thought

- Broadcasting
- Insertion
- Withdrawal

15

Thought broadcasting

Delusion that others can hear or are aware of an individual's thoughts

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Thought insertion

Thoughts are put into mind by external source (e.g. evil thoughts transmitted into head through modem/router)

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Thought withdrawal

Thoughts are being removed (e.g. your roommate is stealing your thoughts while you sleep)

18

Delusions of....

- Grandeur
- Persecution
- Reference
- Being controlled

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Delusions of grandeur

A false impression of one's own importance (e.g. setting out to save the world)

20

Delusions of persecution

Most common; belief that one is being plotted against/threatened

21

Delusions of reference

A neutral event is believed to have a special and personal meaning (e.g. people on TV are making fun of you, broadcasting coded info about you)

22

Delusions of being controlled

Actions, thoughts, etc. are controlled by someone/something else (e.g. demons)

23

Capgras syndrome

People who experience this syndrome will have an irrational belief that someone they know or recognize has been replaced by an imposter.

24

Types of disorganized speech

- Loosening of association
- Word salad
- Neologisms
- Clanging

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Loosening of association

Derailment, speech is very tangential, topic to topic

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Word salad

More extreme, speech is illogical and makes no sense

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Neologisms

Makes up words that have no meaning to the person being spoken to

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Clanging

Stringing together words that rhyme

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Types of disorganized symptoms

- Disorganized speech (formal thought disorder)
- Disorganized affect: Inappropriate emotional behaviour (inappropriate to situation)
- Disorganized behaviour (Unusual behaviours) and catatonia

30

Types of catatonia

- Catatonic immobility
- Catatonic excitement
- Catatonic posturing
- Waxy flexibility