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Intro to Abnormal Psychology > Personality Disorders > Flashcards

Flashcards in Personality Disorders Deck (28)
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1

Personality

Broad term - essence of self that differentiates us from other people. Includes traits, behaviour, beliefs and actions.

2

Personality traits

Enduring patterns of perceiving, relating to or thinking about the world and self across contexts

3

Big 5 inventory

Self-report inventory designed to measure the Big Five dimensions - OCEAN model.

4

Neuroticism continuum

Negativity affectivity Emotional stability

5

Extraversion continuum

Extraversion Detachment

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Openness continuum

Openness to experience Lucidity

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Agreeableness continuum

Agreeableness Antagonism

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Conscientiousness continuum

Conscientiousness Disinhibition

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Negative affectivity

- Is depressed, blue
- Can be tense
- Gets nervous easily
- Is impulsive

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Emotional stability

• Handles stress well
• Is emotionally stable
• Remains calm in tense situations

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Extraversion

• Is talkative
• Is full of energy
• Is outgoing, sociable
• Seeks excitement

12

Detachment

• Is reserved
• Tends to be quiet
• Is sometimes shy

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Openness to experience

• Comes up with new ideas - more creative
• Is ingenious, a deep thinker
• Values artistic, aesthetic experiences

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Lucidity

• Prefers work that is routine
• Has few artistic interests

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Agreeableness

• Is helpful and unselfish with others
• Is generally trusting
• Is considerate and kind to almost anyone

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Antagonism

• Starts quarrels with others
• Can be cold and aloof
• Is sometimes rude to others

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Conscientiousness

• Does a thorough job
• Is a reliable worker
• Does things efficiently

18

Disinhibition

• Can be somewhat careless
• Tends to be disorganized
• Is easily distracted

19

Personality disorder

An enduring pattern of inner experience & behavior:
- Pervasive across contexts - Inflexible; not based on situations, person always behaves in these ways
- Persistent over time - onsets by early adulthood; stable over time
- Pathological - Deviates markedly from cultural expectations; leads to distress/impairment

20

DSM criteria of personality disorder

Manifested in 2+ of the following in DSM:
- Cognition
- Affectivity: Range and appropriateness of emotions
- Interpersonal functioning: Relationships with others
- Impulse control
- Cannot be diagnosed before 18

21

Diagnosis reliability of PD

Poor inter-rater, test-retest

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Diagnostic bias

Some disorders are diagnosed more frequently in men (e.g. antisocial), some are diagnosed more frequently in women (e.g. BPD). Gender affects the way people are diagnosed - problematic, because PDs are supposed to be stable.

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Overlap between PDs

PDs rarely occur on their own - lots of overlap between different PDs. Implies that diagnostic criteria don't neatly place people in categories.

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PD clusters

- Cluster A: odd or eccentric
- Cluster B: dramatic, emotional or erratic
- Cluster: anxious or fearful
- Not based on theories or empirical research; clusters are due to sharing similar traits

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Cluster A

- Paranoid
- Schizoid
- Schizotypal
- Share similarities with schizophrenia; involve social withdrawal and isolation, but they aren't out of touch with reality like schizophrenics

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Cluster B

- Antisocial
- Borderline
- Histrionic
- Narcissistic
- Tend to be manipulative, volatile or uncaring; difficulties in interpersonal relationships and impulse control

27

Cluster C

- Avoidant
- Dependent
- Obsessive-compulsive
- Lower self-esteem, anxiety, inability to make decisions

28

Paranoid PD criteria

Pervasive distrust/suspiciousness of others. Motives interpreted as malevolent (4+ of below)
- Suspects, without basis, that others are exploiting/deceiving
- Unjustified doubts about loyalty/trustworthiness of others
- Reluctant to confide in others due to intense fear of betrayal
- Finds demeaning/threatening meaning in benign remarks
- Persistently bears grudges
- Perceives attacks on reputation & counter-attacks
- Unjustified suspicions regarding fidelity of partner