Flashcards in Economics 1 Deck (16):
How does a price increase affect supply?
When the prices of an item increases supply increases- because more sellers are willing to sell.
What is a supply curve shift?
When supply changes due to something other than price.
What are the characteristics of a positive supply curve shift (shift right)?
Supply increases at each price point
Higher Equilibrium GDP
Number of sellers increases - market can get flooded
Examples: Government subsidies or technology improvements that decrease costs for suppliers
What are the characteristics of a negative supply curve shift (shift left)?
Supply decreases at each price point
Lower Equilibrium GDP
Cost of producing item increases
Examples: Shortage of gold- so less gold watches are made; wars or crises in rice-producing countries means there is less rice on the market
How does price affect the demand for an item?
When the prices of an item increases- demand for it decreases.
What is a Demand Curve Shift?
When demand changes due to something other than price.
What is a Positive Demand Curve Shift (Shift Right)?
When demand increases at each price point
Price of substitutes go up - price of beef rises- so people buy more chicken
Future price increase is expected - War in Middle East- people go out and buy gas
Market expands - i.e. people get new free health care plan- demand at clinic rises
Expansion - more spending increases equilibrium GDP
What is a Negative Demand Curve Shift (Shift Left)?
Demand decreases at each price point.
Price of complement goes up - price of beef goes up- less demand for ketchup
Boycott - Company commits social blunder- consumers boycott
Consumer income rises - Demand for inferior goods drops as people have more money to spend
Consumer tastes change
Contraction - less spending decreases equilibrium GDP
What is the Marginal Propensity to Consume?
How much you spend when your income increases
Calculate: Change in Spending / Change in Income
What is the Marginal Propensity to Save?
How much you save when income increases
Calculate: Change in Savings / Change in Income
Also equals 1 - Marginal Propensity to Consume
How is the multiplier effect calculated?
(1 / 1-MPC) x Change in Spending
How does increased spending by consumers and the government affect the demand curve?
As spending by consumers or the government increases- the demand curve increases (shifts right).
How does spending change due to the multiplier effect?
The increase in demand ends up being larger than the amount of additional income spent in the economy due to the multiplier effect.
One consumer spends money- which:
*Increases the income of a business
*Increases the income of a vendor
*Increases income of employees
*Increases tax revenue
How is Price Elasticity of Demand calculated?
% Change in Quantity Demand / % Change in Price
Under elastic demand- how does price affect revenues?
Price increases- Revenue decreases
Price decreases- Revenue increases