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Flashcards in Editing Deck (33):
1

Editing

-governs relationship between shots
-post-production
-affects structure of material rather than content
-shots affected by context
-additive: strung together chain of images
-subtractive: new shot replaces preceeding

2

Types of Transitions

1. straight cut
2. fade-out/fade-in
3. dissolve
4. wipe
5. iris-out/iris-in

3

Straight Cut

-instantaneous change, abrupt
-most popular

4

Fade in/out

-gradual
In: begins black
Out: darkens at end
-usually combined
-can use other colours

5

Dissolve

-shots seem to fade in together
-for a brief moment, you can see both

6

Wipe

-usually used for a comedic effect
-boundary lone moves across the frame

7

Iris in/out

-circular mask widens for in, becomes small for out

8

Dimensions of Film Editing

1. graphic relations
2. rhythmic relations
3. spatial relations
4. temporal relations

9

graphic match

-emphasize graphic relations
-takes qualities and puts it in the next shot
-main point of interest roughly constant

10

flashback

-plot moves back to show events that occurred earlier than ones already shown

11

flash-forward

-plot moves forward to show future events then moves back to the present

12

elliptical editing

-eliminates some material
-stream-line story
-less tome onscreen than in story

13

overlapping editing

-drawing out shot/extend duration
-action end of one shot partly repeated at beginning of next

14

180 degree rule

-shoot only on 1 side of axis: attributes, direction, position of object in space remain same
-if broken, space will be unnavigable, illegible
-on one side, components + indicators of space will be consistent

15

180 degree line/axis of action

-imaginary line through action

16

establishing shot

-long shot establishing space
-broken down to significant portions-breakdown move in shots

17

re-establishing shot

-can come in middle to remind viewers of what space looks like
-reestablishes the space

18

shot/reverse-shot editing

-dialogue, exchange
-ppl constitute ends of axis
-cut back + forth
-symmetry

19

eyeline match

-consistent sightlines
-shows us what the characters are looking at after we see the character looking

20

match on action

-allows cut to be invisible because we are absorbed in the continuous action
-ensure direction of action is consistent

21

crosscutting (a.k.a. parallel editing)

-cutting betw. 2 shots in diff. spaces, which suggest they are happening simultaneously
-could involve more that 2 lines of action
-unrestricted narration

22

jump cut

-2 shots of same subject, differ only slightly

23

graphic relations

-how they work together or against each other
-lines, shape, tone, composition, movement
-same=smooth transition
-different=jarring
-cuts create graphic relationship betw. shots

24

accelerated editing

-duration becomes shorter + shorter
-suspense

25

rhythmic relations

-determines tempo
-brief shots=quick, long take=slow, same duration=steady tempo

26

temporal relations

-interruption on temporal progression
-may control chronology: affect story-plot relations

27

Kuleshov Effect

-edited together 3 shots to create creative geography
-men walking together in diff. cities
-spectators assume they're in the same city
-cutting creates performance
-cutting together portions of space that prompts spectator to assume a spatial that isn't show onscreen

28

Continuity Editing

-conventions set
-widely accepted+incredibly prevalent
-given all info needed to orient selves
-minimize disruptive potential of cutting
-emphasize coherence over fragmentation
-continuity over interruption
-ensuring the smooth flow of action from one shot to the next

29

spatial relations

-create worlds that don't exist, only in our mind
-we assume spaces are contiguous

30

Creating Continuity

-graphic similarities between shots:keep look consistent
-regular rhythmic relations between shots: ensure shots are long enough
-the creation of coherent and consistent space
-minimal manipulation of temporal order and duration: signal clearly when manipulations occur

31

techniques employed in continuity editing

-180 degree rule
-systematic establishment, break-down, and re-establishment of space
-sightlines (eyeline match)
-shot/reverse shot
-match on action

32

Discontinuity

-forge graphic, rhythmic, spatial, and/or temporal relations between shots that are not characterized by smoothness and thus render cuts visible rather than invisible.
-Yasujiro Ozu, Jean-Luc Godard, Sergei Eisenstein
-avante-garde
-don't look consistent
-shots too fast
-break 180 degree rule
-temporal discontinuity

33

montage

-large process-brief portions of process