In newborns, what is the most common etiology of conjunctivitis?
bacterial conjunctivitis etiology
S. pnuemoniae, Haemophilis, Chlamydia
Kawasaki disease tx
intravenous immunoglobulin and aspirin
When do you suspect Kawasaki disease? (2 factors)
below age 1 and above age 6
unexplained fever for more than 5 days
Kawasaki disease hallmarks (4)
erythema of the lips and mucosa
confirm a corneal abrasion by using?
tx for corneal abrasion?
topical antibiotics, followup in 24-48h
bacterial infection of the nasolacrimal duct is?
S. aureus, S. pnuemoniae
oral and topical abx
Acute Otitis Media txs (3)
Under 6 mo old: abx
6 mo-2 y/o w/ fever of 102.2: abx
2 y/o+ w/ fever and certain diagnosis of AOM: abx
Otitis media w/ effusion tx?
Frontal sinuses develop when?
Sphenoid sinuses develop when?
Thrush risk factors
Use of broad-spectrum abx or inhaled steroids
Nystatin or oral suspension
Bacterial pharyngitis tx?
Red uvula, petechiae, cervical lymphadenopathy, tonsilar exudate indicate?
severe sore throat, high fever, unilateral tonsilar swelling is caused by what infection?
Tx for peritonsilar abscess
IV antibiotics, drained by specialist
etiology of viral croup (2)
Parainfluenza virus or RSV
Treatment of mild croup
Cool mist, symptomatic
Treatment of moderate croup (2)
Corticosteroids, nebulized racemic epinephrine
dysphagia, drooling, distress indicate?
What’s important to remember about examining epiglottitis?
Don’t use a tongue blade- can trigger respiratory spasms
abrupt onset of cough, choking, wheezing in kids 12 mo - 4 years could indicate?
foreign body aspiration
infection of the small airways
Tx for bronchiolitis (3)
B-agonist (Albuterol), nebulized epinephrine, RSV immunoglobulin
Chronic cough w/ sputum
dilation of bronchi
thick, viscous secretions in the lungs, pancreas, liver, intestine, reproductive tract
persistent, productive cough; hyperinflation on CXR
Cystic fibrosis tx (5)
antibiotics chest physiotherapy mucolytics steroids bronchodilators
Respiratory distress w/in minutes of birth, tachypnea, chest retractions, etc
Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome etiology
lungs aren’t matured, lack surfactant —> alveoli collapse
infant respiratory distress syndrome prophylaxis
glucocorticoids given to pregnant mom
Pneumonia etiology 1-12 mos.
Pneumonia etiology 2-5 y/o
Parainfluenza, influenza viruses
Pneumonia etiology 5-18 y/o
paroxysomal cough, whooping sounds, post-tussive emesis, prolonged URI, lymphocytosis
3 phases of Pertussis are?
Catarrhal, Paroxysmal, Convalescent
describe the catarrhal phase of pertussis
URI, fever, 1-2 weeks
the paroxysmal phase of pertussis is
classic symptoms, 2-6 weeks
Spirometry and rule of 2
Rule of 2
using rescue bronchodilator more than 2x/week?
more than 2x/month at night?
refilling more than 2x/year?
what is measured by spirometry for asthma dx
forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1)
long-acting B-agonists like Salmetrol and Formoterol (never use these alone)
reduce risk of SIDS by?
sleeping baby on the back, monitoring for infant overheating, and reducing maternal smoking/exposure to smoke