EL 3&4: Electronic configuration, atomic structure Flashcards
What term describes the number of an electron shell, e.g. n = 2?
Principal quantum number.
Discrete numbers describing most probable distance of electrons from nucleus
What are the shapes of:
- s-orbitals?
- p-orbitals?
- s-orbitals: spherical
- p-orbitals: 3 “8” shapes on x, y + z axes
When there is more than one orbital with the same energy, these are first filled singly by electrons. Why is this?
- Keeps electrons as far apart as possible, minimising repulsion
- Uses smallest amount of energy possible
- Electrons occupying the same orbital have __ spins
- Electrons singly occupying neighbouring orbitals have __ spins
- Opposite
- Parallel
What 4 pieces of information are needed to describe an electron’s position?
- Shell (n)
- Sub-shell (s/p/d/f)
- Orbital
- Spin
- What is the maximum number of electrons that can be held in each type of sub-shell?
- How many orbitals does each contain?
- s: 2 (1 orbital)
- p: 6 (3 orbitals)
- d: 10 (5 orbitals)
- f: 14 (7 orbitals)
What are the maximum number of electrons which can be held in the first 4 shells?
- 2 (1s)
- 8 (2s, 2p)
- 18 (3s, 3p, 3d)
- 32 (4s, 4p, 4d, 4f)
Draw a diagram showing the energies of the electron sub-shells from n = 1 to n = 4.
When is it correct that energy of 3d > energy of 4s?
Period 3 elements and up to nickel in period 4.
How does the modern periodic table group elements?
Groups elements in order of increasing atomic number, + according to their common properties.
Mendeleev used increasing mass number
Indicate the following on the periodic table:
- s-block
- p-block
- d-block
- f-block
- s-block: groups 1-2
- p-block: groups 3-0
- d-block: transition metals
- f-block: lanthanides + actinides
How can you deduce an element’s electron configuration from the periodic table?
- Period: outer shell number
- Group: number of e^{-} in outer subshell
Draw an energy level diagram showing the arrangement of electrons in atomic orbitals in a ground state sodium atom.
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{1}
What is the electronic configuration of vanadium?
Z = 23
4s fills before 3d
1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{6}3d^{3}4s^{2}
Name the following elements:
- [Ne]3s^{2}3p^{5}
- [Ar]4s^{1}
- [Ar]3d^{2}4s^{2}
- [Kr]4d^{10}5s^{2}5p^{2}
- Chlorine
- Potassium
- Titanium
- Tin