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Flashcards in Elections Deck (31):
1

Incumbent Advantage

Two Facts:
-Representatives who run for reelection win approximately 90% of the time
-While incumbent Senators have a tremendous electoral advantage, House incumbents have an even greater advantage

2

Gerrymandering

Partisan redrawing of congressional district borders

3

Nominations

First phase in the election cycle in which parties choose their candidates for general elections

4

General Elections

Second phase of the election cycle in which voters decide who will hold elective office

5

Closed Primary

Voting is restricted to registered members of a political party (Most Common Type)

6

Open Primary

Voters may vote only in one party's primary, but they can choose which party they will cast their vote in (Critics believe that this allows opponents to sabotage the other party's chances of winning by voting for the candidate that is least likely to win)

7

Blanket Primary

Voters may vote for one candidate per office for either party (Only used in Washington and Alaska)

8

Plurality

Greatest amount of votes that is under 50%

9

Runoff Primary

Some states require a minimum percentage for a candidate to win and if no candidate receives that percentage, then another primary is held between the top two candidates (Occur most often when challengers vie for an open office and if they are not well known)

10

State Caucuses and Conventions

Allow states to choose delegates for the presidential convention

11

Super-Delegates

The automatic granting of delegate status to elected party leaders (Used by the Democratic Party)

12

McGovern-Fraser Commission

Delegates are represented by population for each state, promoting diversity in the delegate pool (Used by the Republican Party)

13

Presidential Elections

Elections in which the President is being chosen

14

Midterm Elections

Other elections that occur between presidential elections (Voting for Congress and other offices)

15

Bill Clinton and George W. Bush

Used outsider status in their presidential campaigns, which can be beneficial because people are less likely to vote for Senators, who have more federal experience (which is used against them)

16

Dwight Eisenhower

Was a presidential candidate who had a vast amount of military experience and won the presidency

17

Federal Matching Funds

Funds that double all donations that are $250 or less by matching the prices donated (Primary candidates can apply for these if they can receive 10% of votes in an election)

18

Limits On How Much Individuals Can Donate

Total Amount (Every 2 Years): $117,000
-To a Candidate: $2,500
-To a National Party: $30,800
-To A Political Committee: $5,000

19

Limits On How Much PACs Can Donate

Total Amount (Every 2 Years): None
-To a Candidate: $5,000
-To a National Party: $15,000
-To a Political Committee: $5,000

20

Limits On How Much Non-PACs Can Donate

Total Amount (Every 2 Years): None
-To a Candidate: $2,500
-To a National Party: $30,800
-To a Political Committee: $5,000

21

Super Tuesday

Some states have been pushing back primaries to early March

22

Front-Loading

The states' hopes in having a greater influence on which candidates will win nomination by pushing the primaries forward (Increases pressure on candidates to succeed in winning the nomination)

23

Brokered Conventions

When no candidate has been pledged to by a majority of delegates, the convention itself will decide who the candidate will be

24

Unify the Party

The main purpose of national conventions before presidential campaigning begins (Primaries tear the party apart, because candidates attack one another in order to gain the nomination)

25

Post-Convention Bump

The rise in the public approval of a candidate after a national convention

26

Electoral College

Have the final decision on who the President will be (A means of insulating the government from the uneducated public and also the reason why a minority president-elect (President-Elect who does not have the most votes) can win)

27

Winner-Take-All System

Each state is given a set number of elector's for the electoral college and whichever presidential candidate can win the Presidential Election in each state will take all of the elector's votes

28

News Media

Provides voters with daily campaign information (Focus mainly on the candidates' standing within the national polls)

29

Campaign Advertisements

Provide a more controlled look at candidates (Candidates can build up a positive view themselves or a negative view of their opponents; negative views are becoming more and more common)

30

Voter Turnout

Percentage of the population that actually votes in the elections (Less than 40% of Americans participate)

31

Split-Ticket Voting

Voting for one presidential candidate of one party and legislators of another