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Flashcards in Electrolytes Deck (20)
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1

Hypercalcemia EKG changes

short QT

2

Hypercalcemia treatment

First: IVF!
-Bisphosphonates, calcitonin
-give steroids if vit D or MM related cause
-dialysis for ESRD pts
-NB: phosphate effective but avoided bc of risk of metastatic calcification

3

Hypocalcemia symptoms

-Numbness/tingling
-Tetany (Chvostek'-facial nerve, Trosseu's-BP cuff)
-Long QT
-seizures

4

Causes of hypocalcemia

-HyperPTH most common
-Acute pancreatitis
-Renal insufficiency
-Vit D deficiency
-Hyperphosphatemia
-Blood transfusion w/ citrated products
-Hypomagnesemia (dec PTH secretion)

5

What causes a low calcium level with normal free (ionized) calcium?

Low albumin

correction: 0.8 (4-albumin) + serum calcium

6

Treatment of hypocalcemia

Emergent: IV calcium gluconate
Long-term: oral calcium supplements and vitamin D
CORRECT HYPOMAG

7

Alkalosis leads to hypo or hyperkalemia?

Alkalosis --> hypokalemia

8

Acidosis leads to hypo or hyperkalemia?

Acidosis --> hyperkalemia

9

Symptoms of hypokalemia

Weakness, paralysis, ileus, ST depression, flattening of T waves and long QT w/ prominent U waves

10

What are some causes of redistribution hypokalemia?

Alkalosis, beta-agonists (e.g. epi in trauma), insulin excess

11

Treatment of hypokalemia

Treat underlying cause. Usually just use oral KCl. IV KCl can be given if

12

Hyperkalemia EKG

EKG: peaked T waves, widened QRS, PR prolongation, loss of P waves, lastly sine wave pattern

13

Hyperkalemia symptoms

Like hypo- weakness, decreased DTRs, N/V

also diarrhea, respiratory failure

14

Treatment of hyperkalemia

If severe or ECG changess, first give calcium gluconate. Next glucose and insulin, beta agonists, Kayexalate. If desperate, sodium bicarb raises pH which sends K into cells. Dialysis for renal failure. Diuretics (e.g. furosemide).

15

Hypomagnesemia can cause what two other electrolye imbalances?

Hypomagnesemia is assoc with hypocalcemia and hypokalemia

16

Most common cause of hypomag?

Malabsorption, steatorrheic states

17

Most common cause of hypermag?

Renal failure

18

Signs of hypermag?

(remember labor floor..)

Nausea, weakness, loss of DTRs (first sign) --> somnolence, coma, muscular paralysis --> resp failure or cardiac arrest

19

Treatment of hypermag?

Calcium gluconate to stabilize herat. Saline + furosemide. Intubate as needed.

20

Most common causes of severe hypophosphatemia?

Alcoholism, DKA