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Flashcards in Embryology 1 Deck (22)
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1

What are pharyngeal arches

System of mesenchymal proliferations in neck region (ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm)

2

Role of neural crest cells in development of pharyngeal arches

Migrate into mesoderm core to influence development of arches

3

What does each pharyngeal arch develop into

Muscular component
Cartilage bar
Cranial nerve
Aortic arch

4

What are pharyngeal pouches and clefts

Pouch - between each arch on endoderm side

Cleft - between each arch in ectoderm side

5

What do the anterior and posterior parts of the neural tube become

Anterior - forebrain, midbrain and hindbrain
Posterior - spinal cord

6

Which cranial nerve develops from the 1st pharyngeal arch
What does it innervate

Trigeminal
Sensory - skin of face and lining of nose and mouth
Motor - muscles of mastication

7

Which cranial nerve develops from the 2nd pharyngeal arch
What does it innervate

Facial
Sensory - taste buds in anterior 2/3 tongue
Motor - muscles of facial expression

8

Which cranial nerve develops from the 3rd pharyngeal arch
What does it innervate

Glossopharyngeal
Sensory - taste buds in posterior 1/3 tongue
Motor - stylopharyngeus

9

Which cranial nerve develops from the 4th pharyngeal arch
What does it innervate

Superior laryngeal branch of vagus
Motor - pharyngeal constrictors and cricothyroid

10

Which cranial nerve develops from the 6th pharyngeal arch
What does it innervate

Recurrent laryngeal branch of vagus
Motor - intrinsic muscles of larynx

11

Which cartilage develops from the 1st pharyngeal arch
What does it become

Meckel's cartilage (mandibular prominence only)
Malleus, incus and mandible

12

Which cartilage develops from the 2nd pharyngeal arch
What does it become

Reichart's cartilage
Stapes, styloid process and part of hyoid (lesser Cornu and upper body)

13

Which cartilage develops from the 1st pharyngeal arch

Forms rest of hyoid

14

Which cartilage develops from the 4th pharyngeal arch

Thyroid and cricoid cartilage

15

Which cartilage develops from the 6th pharyngeal arch

Arytenoid cartilage

16

What aortic arches develop from pharyngeal arches

3rd - internal carotid artery
4th - aortic arch and brachiocephalic
6th - left and right pulmonary arteries

17

What does the 1st pharyngeal pouch give rise to

Tympanic cavity and Eustachian tube

18

What does the 2nd pharyngeal pouch give rise to

Palatine tonsils

19

What does the 3rd pharyngeal pouch give rise to

Ventral - thymus
Dorsal - inferior parathyroid gland

20

What does the 4th pharyngeal pouch give rise to

Dorsal - superior parathyroid gland

21

What happens to the pharyngeal clefts during development

1st cleft remains and forms the external auditory meatus
The 2nd pharyngeal arch obliterates all of the other clefts (obliterates the cervical sinus)

22

What happens if the cervical sinus isn't obliterated

Branchial fistulae or cysts occur on the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid