Week 1 Flashcards Preview

Head and Neck > Week 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Week 1 Deck (61)
Loading flashcards...
1

Superior and inferior boundaries of the neck

Suprasternal notch of the manubrium to the lower margin of the mandible

2

Broad functions of neck fascia

Superficial surrounds structures in the neck
Deep layers compartmentalise the neck to prevent spread of infection, form natural planes for surgery and ease movement between structures

3

Where is the superficial cervical fascia

Between the dermis and deep cervical fascia

4

What is the structural difference between the superficial and deep cervical fascia

Superficial is loose connective tissue
Deep is dense connective tissue

5

What does the superficial cervical fascia contain

Fat
Platysma
Cutaneous nerves
Lymph nodes
Superficial blood vessels e.g external jugular vein

6

What are the deep cervical fascia layers (superficial to deep)

Investing
Pretracheal
Prevertebral
Carotid sheath

7

What is the investing layer connected to

Completely surrounds the neck and subcutaneous tissue attaching to the:
Posterior- external occipital protuberance and nuchal ligament
Inferior - scapula spine, acromion, clavicle and manubrium
Superior - lower border of mandible and mastoid process

8

What structures does the investing layer enclose

Sternocleidomastoid
Trapezius
Submandibular and parotid glands

9

What is the suprasternal space

Space between the 2 heads of SCM formed by the investing layer of deep fascia

10

2 parts of the pretracheal layer

Visceral - encloses thyroid gland, larynx, trachea and oesophagus
Muscular - encloses infrahyoid muscles

11

What are the infrahyoid muscles

Muscles running inferiorly from hyoid anterior to the visceral pretracheal layer

12

What cartilage can be felt in the neck

Thyroid superiorly
Cricoid inferiorly

13

What contributes to the visceral pretracheal layer

Buccopharyngeal fascia posteriorly

14

What is the pretracheal fascia attached to

Hyoid to the pericardium

15

What is the prevertebral fascia attached to

Surrounds the cervical vertebra and associated pre- and para- vertebral muscles attaching to:
Base of skull
Transverse processes up to T3
Endothoracic fascia of rib cage

16

What does the axillary sheath enclose and what does it arise from

Encloses scalenes, subclavian artery and brachial plexus
Arises from the lateral prevertebral layer of deep cervical fascia

17

What forms the carotid sheath

All layers of the deep cervical fascia

18

Where does the carotid sheath run from and to

From the thoracic mediastinum to the base of skull

19

What is contained in the carotid sheath

Common carotid artery
Internal jugular vein
Vagus nerve
Deep cervical lymph nodes

20

Where is the retropharyngeal space

Between the pretracheal and prevertebral layers

21

Risk in infection of retropharyngeal space

Mediastinitis

22

Risk in infection pretracheal space

Anterior mediastinitis

23

Where is the pretracheal space

Between investing layer and visceral pretracheal layer

24

Action of the platysma

Draws corners of the mouth inferiorly
Draws skin of neck superiorly if teeth are clenched

25

Innervation of platysma

Facial nerve (cervical branch)

26

Attachments of sternocleidomastoid

Originates from the mastoid process
Splits into 2 heads which insert on the clavicle and sternum

27

Unilateral action of the SCM

Lateral flexion of neck (ear towards shoulder)

28

Bilateral action of SCMs

Flexion at neck
Extension at atlanto-occipital joint

29

Innervation of SCM

Accessory nerve

30

Attachments of trapezius

Originates from base of skull, nuchal ligament and spinous processes of vertebra
Inserts on lateral 1/3 clavicle, acromion and scapula spine