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Flashcards in Embryology Deck (56)
1

Holoprosencephaly can result from deficiency of which gene?

Sonic hedgehog

2

Give the basic role in embryogenesis of each of the following genes: sonic hedgehog, Wnt-7, FGF, homeobox

SHH - antero-posterior patterning, Wnt-7 - dorsal-ventral patterning, FGF - limbs, Homeobox - segmentation

3

Defect of which gene can lead to synpolydactyly (fusion of supranumery digits)

HOXD13

4

What is the anterior pituitary an embryological derivative of?

Rathkes pouch, which is a derivative of surface ectoderm

5

What structures does the neural crest give rise to (12)

ANS, DRG, CNs, Celiac ganglion, Melanocytes, Adrenal medulla, Parafollicular cells of thyroid, Schwann cells, Pia and arachnoid, bones of skull, odontoblasts, aorticopulmonary septum

6

What is the embryologic derivation of melanocytes, the adrenal medulla, and parafollicular cells of the thyroid respectively?

All are from neural crest

7

VACTERL

Mesodermal defects. Vertebral defects, Anal atresia, Cardiac defects, TE fisula, Renal defects, Limb defects (bone and muscle)

8

Teratogenic effect of ACE inhibitors

Renal damage

9

Teratogenic effect of alkylating agents

Absence of digits, multiple anomalies

10

Teratogenic effect of aminoglycosides

CN 8 toxicity

11

Teratogenic effect of carbamazepine

Neural tube defects, craniofacial defects, fingernail hypoplasia, developmental delay, IUGR

12

Teratogenic effect of lithium

Ebsteins anomaly (atrialized right ventricle)

13

Teratogenic effect of phenytoin

Fetal hydrantoin syndrome - microcephaly, dysmorphic craniofacial features, hypoplastic nails and distal phalanges, cardiac defects, IUGR, MR

14

Teratogenic effect of tetracyclines

discolored teeth

15

Teratogenic effect of valproate

Inhibits maternal folate absorption - neural tube defects

16

Teratogenic effect of warfarin

Bone deformities, fetal hemorrhage, abortion, ophthalmologic abnormalities

17

What teratogen is associated with ADHD?

Smoking

18

Effects of maternal diabetes on the fetus

Caudal regression syndrome (anal atresia to sirenomelia), congenital heart defects, neural tube defects

19

Microcephaly, holoprosencephaly, facial abnormalities (cleft lip and palate), limb dislocation, heart and lung fistulas, MR

Fetal alcohol syndrome

20

What is the embryonic predecessor to the ascending aorta and pulmonary trunk

Truncus arteriosus

21

What is the embryonic predecessor to the RV and smooth parts of the LV and RV

Bulbus cordis

22

What is the embryonic predecessor to the trabeculated LV and RV

Primitive ventricle

23

What is the embryonic predecessor to the trabeculated LA and RA

Primitive atria

24

What is the embryonic predecessor to the coronary sinus?

Left horn of the sinus venosus

25

What is the embryonic predecessor to the smooth part of the RA?

Right horn of the SV

26

What is the embryonic predecessor to the SVC?

Right common cardinal vein and right anterior cardinal vein

27

What heart defect is found in 20 to 30 percent of healthy adults?

Patent foramen ovale

28

Give the fetal precursors for each of the following: umbilical vein, umbilical arteries, allantois, and notochord

Umbilical vein - ligamentum teres hepatis, umbilical arteries - medial umbilical ligaments, allantois - urachus-median umbilical ligament, notochord - nucleus pulposus of IV discs

29

From what embryonic structure does the aqueduct of sylvius arise?

Mesencephalon

30

Two causes of increased aFP during pregnancy

Neural Tube Defect and anterior abdominal wall defect (omphalocele)

31

In syringomyelia what is in large, what is it associated with, and where does this most often occur?

Central canal of the spinal cord, Chiari II, C8-T1

32

3rd aortic arch derivatives

Common carotid and proximal part of the internal carotid

33

6th aortic arch derivatives

Proximal part of pulmonary arteries and ductus arteriosus

34

What are the branchial clefts, arches, and pouches derived from respectively?

Clefts - ectoderm, arches - mesoderm and neural crests, pouches - endoderm

35

A thyroglossal duct cyst is midline while a branchial cleft cyst is lateral. What is another easy way to tell them apart?

Branchial cleft cyst will not move on swallowing, thyrglossal duct cyst will

36

Fate of branchial clefts 1-4

1 - external auditory meatus, 2 through 4 are obliterated

37

Treacher Collins syndrome

Failure of 1st arch neural crest cells to migrate. Mandibular hypoplasia, facial abnormalities

38

Cartilage, muscles, and nerves of branchial arch 1

Mandible, Malleus, incus, spheno-Mandibular ligament. Muscles of Mastication, Myelohyoid, ant 2/3 of tongue muscles. V2 and V3

39

Cartilage, muscles, and nerves of branchial arch 2

Stapes, Styloid Process, lesser horn of hyoid, Stylohyoid ligament. Muscles of facial expression, Stapedius, Stylohyoid, post belly of digastric. CN 7

40

Cartilage, muscles, and nerves of branchial arch 3

Greater horn of hyoid. Stylopharyngeus. CN 9

41

Cartilage, muscles, and nerves of branchial archs 4-6

Thyroid, cricoid, arytenoid, corniculate, cuneiform cartilages. Cricothyroid lev veli palatini (4), intrinsic muscles of larynx except cricothyroid (6). CN 10 superior laryngeal br (4) and recurrent laryngeal branch (6)

42

What nerve is at risk during thyroidectomy and what muscle may this paralyze?

Superior laryngeal nerve. Cricothyroid muscle (both from branchial arch 4)

43

What is congenital pharyngeo-cutaneous fistula and what structure is it a defect in the development of?

Fistula between tonsillar area and clef in lateral neck. Branchial arch 3

44

What branchial arch forms the posterior third of the tongue?

Arches 3 and 4

45

Derivatives of branchial pouch 1

Middle ear cavity, eustachian tube, mastoid air cells

46

Derivatives of branchial pouch 2

Epithelial lining of palatine tonsil

47

Derivatives of branchial pouch 3

Inferior parathyroids (dorsal wings), and thymus (ventral wings)

48

Derivatives of branchial pouch 4

Superior parathyroids (dorsal wings)

49

DiGeorge syndrome is aberrant development of what embryonic structures?

Branchial pouches 3 and 4

50

Cleft lip results from failure of fusion of what structures?

Maxillary and medial nasal processes

51

Cleft palate results from failure of fusion of what structures?

Lateral palatine process, nasal septum, and/or median palatine process

52

Gastroschisis

Extrusion of abdominal contents through abdominal folds and not covered by peritoneum

53

Omphalocele

Persistence of herniation of abdominal contents into umbilical cord, covered by peritoneum

54

What obstructs the rise of a horseshoe kidney?

IMA

55

A bicornuate uterus results from failure to fuse of what structures?

The paramesonephric ducts

56

What cell produces anti-mullerian hormone?

Sertoli cell