Flashcards in Hem Onc Deck (306)
What are the platelet receptors for vWF and fibrinogen respectively?
vWF - GPIb. Fibrinogen - GPIIb/IIIa
How do reticulocytes show up under Wright-Giemsa stain and why?
Blue due to ribosomal RNA presence
What causes the green color in most pus and sputum?
Myeloperoxidase from neutrophils (contains heme)
What is the most common cause of hypersegmented PMNs?
Causes of eosinophilia
NAACP. Neoplastic, Asthma, Allergic process, Collagen vascular disease, Parasites
How does induction therapy work?
Prevents allergies by inducing blocking antibody (IgG against allergen) by introducing small amounts of allergen over time. Prevents IgE-mast cell interaction
What type of antibodies are anti-AB and anti-Rh respectively?
Anti-AB are IgM, anti-rh are IgG
What factor is specifically measured by the PT?
What factors does antithrombin inhibit?
7, 9, 10, 11, 12
What factors do protein C and S inhibit?
5 and 8 (but not 5 leiden)
Between the PT and aPTT which measures the intrinsic pathway and which the extrinsic?
PT measures extrinsic, aPTT measures intrinsic
Pathology associated with spur cells (acanthocytes)
Liver disease, abetalipoproteinemia
Pathology associated with basophilic stippling
Thalassemias, Anemia of chronic disease, Iron deficiency, Lead poisoning (w/ hypochromic microcytic anemia)
Pathology associated with bite cells
Pathology associated with schistocytes, helmet cells
DIC, TTP/HUS, Traumatic hemolysis
3 causes of DIC
Gram negative sepsis, Acute pancreatitis, Burn injury
Common cause of TTP/HUS
E Coli 0157 (ask about a recent diarrheal illness)
Pathology associated with teardrop cells
Bone marrow infiltration (eg. myelofibrosis)
Pathology associated with target cells
HbC, Asplenia, Liver disease, Thalassemia
Pathology associated with Heinz bodies
Alpha-thal, G6PD deficiency. Due to oxidation of iron from ferrous to ferric denaturing hemoglobin
Pathology associated with Howell-Jolly bodies
Function hyposplenia or asplenia. Due to basophilic nuclear remnants in RBCs
Types of alpha thalassemias
4 gene deletion - Hb Barts (g4) is incompatible with life. 3 gene deletion - HbH disease (b4). 1-2 gene deletion - no significant anemia
How do you confirm the diagnosis of b-thal minor?
Increased HbA2 (>3.5 percent) on electrophoresis
What is increased in major and minor b-thal?
X-ray finding in b-thal major
Crew cut skull x-ray (marrow expansion). Also Chipmunk facies
What heme synthesis enzymes are inhibited by lead?
ALA dehydratase and ferrochelatase
Lines on gingivae and epiphyses on x-ray, encephalopathy and erythrocyte basophilic stippling, abdominal colic, sideroblastic anemia, wrist and food drop
Treatment for lead poisoning
EDTA and Dimercaprol. Succimer for kids
Defect and genetics in sideroblastic anemia
X-linked defect in gamma-ALA synthase. Can also be caused by alcohol and lead. Will find increased iron, normal TIBC, increased ferritin
Treatment for sideroblastic anemia
What leads to thalassemias?
Mutations that cause defective mRNA processing (a mutation 3 bases upstream of start codon interferes w mRNA binding to ribosome)
How do you distinguish folate deficiency from B12 deficiency.
B12 will come with neuro signs. Also, normal methylmalonic acid in folate def, but increased in B12 def
What compound is found in increased levels in both folate and B12 deficiency?
What are the main spinal cord areas targeted by B12 deficiency?
Posterior columns (vibration/proprio) and lateral corticospinal tract (spasticity)
How do you distinguish B12 deficiency from tabes dorsalis?
Lateral corticospinal tract affected in B12 deficiency but not in tabes dorsalis
A few drugs that cause nonmegaloblastic macrocytic anemia (3)
5-FU, AZT, hydroxyurea
Findings in intravascular hemolysis
Decreased haptoglobin, increased LDH, hemoglobin in urine
Findings in extravascular hemolysis
Increased LDH and increased unconjugated bilirubin
How do you calculate corrected reticulocyte count?
(Hct / 45) x [Retic Count]. If polychromasia present, divide result by 2
What is the main regulator of iron in the body?
Major causes of aplastic anemia
Benzene, chloramphenicol, alkylating agents, antimetabolites, parvo B19, EBV, HIV, HCV, Fanconis anemia, Immune mediated (often follows acute hepatitis)
Fatigue, malaise, pallor, purpura, mucosal bleeding, petechiae, infection
What GI related effect does hemolytic anemia predispose to?
What test would you run (besides a CBC) if you suspect spherocytosis and what would be the result?
Osmotic fragility. RBCs will lyse in hypotonic saline
Treatment for hereditary spherocytosis
Genetics of G6PD deficiency
Back pain with hemoglobinuria a few days later. RBCs with heinz bodies and bite cells
Cause of intrinsic hemolytic normocytic anemia in newborn (and most common associated finding)
Pyruvate kinase deficiency. Will find splenic hypertrophy from increased work
What substitution gives HbC?
Glutamic acid to lysine at position 6
Labs and complications of PNH
Increased urine hemosiderin. Complications - thrombosis
What substitution causes HbS?
Glutamic acid for valine at position 6
X-ray findings of sickle cell anemia
What is the immediate effect of an HbS mutation?
Hydrophobic interactions among hemoglobin molecules with HbS are altered
What causes autosplenectomy in sickle cell patients?
Vascular occlusion in the spleen
Most common complications of sickle cell related to microorganisms
Aplastic crisis (parvo B19) and osteomyelitis (salmonella, followed by s aureus and e coli)
How do children with sickle cell often present?
Dactylitis (painful swelling of the hand)
How would kidney problems in a sickle cell patient present
Either rapid onset hematuria (renal papillary necrosis) or microhematuria (medullary infarcts)
Treatment for sickle cell and how it helps
Hydroxyurea increases HbF. Give oxygen in crises. Last resort is bone marrow transplantation
Put the following in order of how far they travel on electrophoresis: HbA, HbC, HbS
(Least far to farthest) HbC, HbS, HbA
What composes warm agglutinins and what conditions are they seen in?
IgG. SLE, CLL, alpha-methyldopa and other drugs
What composes cold agglutinins and in what conditions are they seen
IgM. CLL, Mycoplasma pneumonia, infectious mono
Conditions in which microangiopathic anemia is seen
DIC, TTP-HUS, SLE, malignant hypertension. Will see schistocytes
Iron studies in pregnancy/OCP use
Serum iron nl, Transferrin up, Ferritin nl, Transferrin sat down
Iron findings in lead poisoning
Serum iron up, transferrin down, ferritin nl, transferrin sat up
What gene is mutation in PNH?
PIG-A (a GPI anchor)
In what condition will a CD55/CD59 deficiency be seen?
PNH (GPI anchor is necessary for CD55/59 attachment)
Hemolytic anemia, hypercoagulability, decreased blood counts
Headache, memory loss, demyelination
Lead poisoning (adult)
Defect in AIP
Porphobilinogen deaminase (aka uroporphyrinogen-I-synthase)
What is the rate limiting step in heme synthesis?
ALA synthase (first step). Defective in x-linked sideroblastic anemia
Painful abdomen, red-wine colored urine, polyneuropathy, psychologic disturbances, recent medication change.
What is the treatment for AIP?
Glucose and heme (they inhibit ALA synthase)
Defect in porphyria cutanea tarda
Blistering cutaneous photosensitivity
Porphyria cutanea tarda (the most common porphyria)
List the substance that accumulates in each of the following - lead poisoning, AIP, porhyria cutanea tarda
Lead poisoning - protoporhyrin (in blood), AIP - porphobilinogen, ALA uroporphyrin (in urine), PCT - uroporphyrin (tea-colored urine)
Defect and genetics in Hemophilia A and B
X-recessive. A - 8, B - 9
Bleeding studies in hemophilia A and B
Increased PTT, normal PT, normal bleeding time
Defect and labs in Bernard-Soulier disease
Defect in platelet plug formation due to decreased GP1b (platelets cant bind vWF). Decreased platelet count, increased bleeding time
Defect and labs in Glanzmanns thrombasthenia
Decreased GpIIb/IIIa leads to defect in platelet-to-platelet aggregation. No change in platelet count, increased BT
Defect and labs in ITP
Anti-GPIIb/IIIa antibodies (platelet-Ab complex consumed by splenic macrophages). Decreased platelet count, increased bleeding time, increased megakaryocytes
Defect and labs in TTP
Deficiency of ADMTS13 leads to decreased degradation of vWF multimers (increased platelet aggregation and thrombosis). Low platelet count, high BT, schistocytes, high LDH
Neurologic and renal symptoms, fever, thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia
What bleeding abnormalities would be found in patients who have missed their dialysis a while and why?
Very long BT with normal platelet count, PT, and PTT. Uremia causes qualitative platelet d/o
vWF disease primarily affects binding of what to what?
Platelets to collagen (due to decreased levels of vWF)
Treatment for vWF disease and why
DDAVP. Releases vWF stored in endothelium
Labs in vWF disease
PC normal, BT high, PT normal, PTT normal or high
Labs in DIC
PC low, BT high, PT high, PTT high
Causes of DIC (7)
Sepsis, Trauma, Obstetric complications, acute Pancreatitis, Malignancy, Nephrotic syndrome, Transfusion
What is the most common cause of inherited hypercoagulability and how does the defect cause a problem?
Factor V Leiden. It cannot be degraded by protien C
What deficiency increases the chance of thrombotic skin necrosis after warfarin administration?
Protein C or S deficiency
How do you distinguish leukemia from leukemoid reaction?
High leukocyte alkaline phosphatase in leukemoid reaction
Which lymphoma is a localized single group of nodes with contiguous spread?
Which lymphoma includes B symptoms most often
Which lymphoma involves noncontiguous spread?
What is the relationship of Reed-Sternberg cell presence to diagnosis of Hodgkins?
Necessary but not sufficient
List the types of Hodgkins lymphoma from best prognosis (also most common) to worst prognosis (also least common)
Nodular sclerosing (most common, best prognosis), Mixed cellularity, Lymphocyte predominant, Lymphocyte depleted (least common, worst prognosis)
Starry sky appearance
Burkitts lymphoma. Due to lymphocytes interspersed with macrophages
What is the most common NHL and in whom does it usually occur?
Diffuse large B-cell. Usually older adults, but 20 percent in children
Mantle cell lymphoma marker and epidemiology
Older males, CD5 positive
What parts of the world are most affected by adult t-cell lymphoma and what is the causal agent?
HTLV-1. Japan, West Africa, Caribbean
What is the marker with mycosis fungoides/Sezary and how does it present?
CD4+. May present with cutaneous patches/nodules
Hypercalcemia, constipation, renal insufficiency, anemia, fatigue, back pain
Multiple myeloma (will also see lytic bone lesions)
What will you find in the kidney with multiple myeloma?
Atrophic tubules and eosinophilic casts
Bence Jones protein
Ig light chains in the urine. Usually have a Kappa-Kappa configuration
Markers in ALL
CALLA and TdT+
Mediastinal mass causing respiratory symptoms and SVC syndrome in a child
What yields a better prognosis in ALL?
What lymphoma and leukemia are the same disease and what is the difference between them?
Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma and CLL. CLL has increased peripheral blood lymphocytosis
Marker for hairy cell leukemia
AML (common APL which is M3). Release leads to DIC
Treatment for APL (AML M3)
ATRA (vitamin A) induces differentiation of myeloblasts
CML translocation (give chrosomes and genes)
Burkitts translocation (give chrosomes and genes)
t(8,14). C-Myc activation
Follicular lymphoma translocation (give chrosomes and genes)
t(14,18). BCL-2 Activation
APL (AML M3) translocation (give chrosomes and genes)
Ewings sarcoma translocation (give chrosomes and genes)
Mantle cell lymphoma translocation (give chrosomes and genes)
Markers in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH)
S-100 and CD1a
What are JAK2 mutations associated with?
Chronic myeloproliferative disorders
What types of cells are increased in polycythemia vera?
RBCs, WBCs and platelets
Causes of ectopic erythropoietin (5)
RCC, Wilms tumor, cyst, HCC, hydronephrosis
Low molecular weight heparin. Act more on Xa, better bioavability, 2-4x longer half life. No monitoring necessary but not easily reversible
How does HIT work?
Heparin binds platelet factor IV causing antibody production which binds and activates platelets
Lepirudin and Bivalirudin
Direct thrombin inhibitors
Which one crosses the placenta, heparin or warfarin?
Warfarin. (Just remember that heparin is natural to the body, so it cant cause problems in pregnancy)
Pentasaccharide Xa inhibitor
What change in the platelet count do thrombolytics cause?
What do you treat thrombolytic toxicity with?
Aminocaproic acid (an inhibitor of fibrinolysis)
What effect does aspirin have on blood studies?
Increased BT, no change in PT or PTT
Clopidogrel and Ticlopidine
Irreversibly block ADP receptors and inhibit platelet aggregation. Prevent IIb/IIIa expression.
What hematologic drug has a side effect that may present with fever and mouth ulcers?
Cilostazol and dipyridamole
PDE III inhibitor (increased cAMP in platelets inhibits aggregation). Also vasodilate
Monoclonal antibody to IIb/IIIa receptor
Anticancer drugs acting on the S phase
Antimetabolites and etoposide
Anticancer drugs acting on the G2 phase
Etoposide and Bleomycin
Anticancer drugs acting on the M phase
Vinca alkaloids and taxols
What do you give to reverse methotrexate effects?
What do you give to reverse 5-FU effects?
Thymidine (not leucovorin)
Pyrimidine analog (inhibits DNA pol)
Intercalates DNA. Use in childhood tumors
Doxorubicin and daunorubicin
Generates free radicals, intercalates DNA. Use in Hodgkins. Cardiotoxicity (prevent with dexrazoxane), alopecia
Free radical formation, DNA breaks. Pulmonary fibrosis, skin changes
Inhibits topoisomerase II (causes DNA degradation). Myelosuppression, GI irritation, alopecia
Cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide
X-link DNA. Bioactivation by liver. Prevent hemorrhagic cystitis with mesna (binds metabolite)
Carmustine, lomustine, semustine, streptozocin
Alkylating agents. GBM. Dizziness, ataxia
Alkylating agent. CML. Pulmonary fibrosis, hyperpigmentation
Vincristine and Vinblastine
Block MT polymerization. Neurotoxic and paralytic ileus (vincristine), myelosuppression (vinblastine)
Paclitaxel (and other taxols)
Hyperstabilize MTs. Ovarian and breast carcinomas. Myelosuppression and hypersensitivity
Alkylating-like agents. Cross link DNA. Nephrotoxic (prevent with amifostine), acoustic nerve damage, chloride diuresis
What is the most commonly used glucocorticoid in cancer chemotherapy
Prednisone (may induce apoptosis)
Tamoxifen and raloxifene
SERMs. Antagonists in breast and agonists in bone. May increase risk of endometrial ca (tamoxifen)
Antibody to Her-2. Cardiotoxicity
BCR-ABL inhibitor. Fluid retention
Most common chemotherapy causing cardiotoxicity
Most common chemotherapy causing myelosuppression
5-FU, 6-MP and Methotrexate
S-100 positive. Melanoma, small cell of lung, bronchial carcinoid, carcinoid tumor, neuroblastoma
Young girl with necrotic mass coming out of her vagina. Vimentin and keratin negative, desmin positive.
Embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (most common sarcoma of children)
What type of tumor tends to be found in the midline?
Most common site for lymphomas not in a lymph node
Stomach (H pylori)
Most common lymphoma
Follicular B cell
What is the presentation of hydatidiform moles and when do they present?
First trimester, signs of preeclampsia (HTN, proteinuria, edema)
Which type of hydatidiform mole can progress to cancer and what type of cancer?
Complete (46XX), choriocarcinoma. Partial (69 chromosomes) does not progress to cancer
Which vessel in the fetus has the highest O2 concentration?
What is seen in a hydatidiform mole that is not seen in a choriocarcinoma?
What hormones does the synctiotrophoblast (or a hydatidiform mole or choriocarcinoma) secrete?
B-hCG and hPL
Heterotopic tissue (i.e. pancreatic tissue in the GI tract)
How many doubling times does it take to get a tumor that can be detected clinically?
About 30 doublings
What types of cancer tend to spread to lymph nodes before going hematogenous?
Carcinomas (sarcomas can go directly hematogenous)
What carcinoma breaks the rule and goes directly hematogenous (without stopping in a lymph node first)?
Follicular carcinoma of the thyroid
In what organ is primary cancer more common than metastasis?
Kidney (renal adenocarcinoma)
What lab abnormality will likely be seen in metastasized prostate cancer?
Increased alkaline phosphate (because prostate carcinoma is blastic to bone)
What is seen on EM of a vascular malignancy?
Wibble palad bodies (have vWF in them)
Steps in oncogenesis (and define each)
Initiation (mutation), Promotion (multiple copies of mutation are made), Progression (sub-specialization)
What type of mutation is responsible for loss of function in all TS genes?
Why is hepatocellular carcinoma common in Asia?
Because hepatitis B and aflatoxin (aspergillus) are common
What is the cause of the rapidly increasing incidence of primary CNS lymphoma?
Associations with UVA and UVB light
UVA - black light (contributes to skin cancer indirectly, less dangerous), UVB - skin cancers (basal cell, squamous cell, melanoma), UVB - thymidine dimers
What metal is associated with skin cancer?
Most common cause of white eye reflex
Congenital cataract (CMV, rubella, corticosteroids, Cushings). Rb is notable, but less common
What is the basic rule for BCC and SCC?
Upper lip and above is BCC, lower lip and down is SCC
What is the only bacterium associated with cancer?
What is the general rule for colon cancer symptoms?
Left side obstructs, right side bleeds (watch for anemia with right side)
What can metastasize to virchows node besides gastric cancer?
Superficial migratory thrombophlebitis due to carcinoma of the head of the pancreas
Two common hematologic findings in cancer patients
Hypercoagulability and thrombocytosis
Most common cause of fever in cancer patients
Gram negative infection (e coli from indwelling catheter, pseudomonas from respirator, also s aureus from catheter even though its gram positive)
What is the most common paraneoplastic syndrome?
Cancers that PTHrP
Squamous of the lung and RCC
What are two skin signs that if they show up quickly might signal cancer, and which cancer do they signal?
Acanthosis nigricans and seborrheic keratosis. Quick development may signal gastroadenocarcinoma
What collagen vascular disease is associated with cancer and which cancers?
Dermatomyositis - leukemia, lymphoma and lung cancer. Can get patches on knuckles (goltrins patches)
What endocarditis is associated with cancer and which cancers?
Marantic (nonbacterial thrombotic) endocarditis. Mucuous producing cancers (eg colon). Be careful, they can embolize
What tumor can convert calcitonin to amyloid?
Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid
What tumors is AFP associated with?
Yolk sac tumor and HCC
How can CEA (marker for colon cancer) cause problems outside the colon?
CEA-Ag complexes can deposit in the kidney and cause diffuse membranous glumerulonephritis (a nephrotic syndrome)
Most common benign and malignant primary CNS tumors in kids
Benign - cerebellar cystic astrocytoma (most common overall), malignant - medulloblastoma
Most common cancers in men and women respectively
Men - prostate, lung, colon. Women - breast, lung, colon
Most common infection transmitted by accidental needle stick in the hospital
How long does it take after anemia develops to get an elevated reticulocyte count?
What is the cutoff for an expected reticulocyte count in anemia?
Corrected retic count should be 3 percent or greater
What is the most common cause for failure of the Hb and Hct to go up sufficiently after transfusion?
GI bleed (which is most common cause of anemia worldwide)
Where are iron, folate and B12 absorbed respectively?
Iron - Duodenum, Folate - jejunum, B12 - terminal ileum
What is the most common cause of malabsorption and what areas does it affect?
Celiac sprue. Duodenum and jejunum
What finding on a blood smear is an important marker for alcoholism?
Target cells (due to altered cholesterol concentration)
What is the relationship between transferrin and TIBC?
They are the same
What determines the number of cell divisions an RBC precursor undergoes when developing in the marrow?
4 globins and the 3 normal hemoglobins
Globins - A, B, D, G. HbA is 2A2B, HbA2 is 2A2D, HbF is 2A2G
Whats the best way to distinguish between IDA and anemia of chronic disease?
ACD - high ferritin levels, IDA - high TIBC (transferrin)
What is the inhibitory neurotransmitter in the spinal cord?
3 causes of sideroblastic anemias
Alcohol, Vitamin B6 deficiency, Lead poisoning
EM findings in alcoholism
Megamitochondria (alcohol is an uncoupling agent and screws up mitochondria)
What causes a ringed sideroblast?
Iron that enters the mitochondria but cant get out (because its not properly assembled into heme)
Primary populations for alpha thalassemia
Far easterners and blacks
What will be the results of Hb electrophoresis in alpha thalassemia?
Normal. Alpha globin is required in all the normal hemoglobins (HbA, HbA2 and HbF) so they are all equally decreased
Why is the rate of choriocarcinoma high in the far east?
Because the higher incidence of alpha-thal leads to spontaneous abortion (Hb Barts) which predisposes to choriocarcinoma
Treatment for alpha thalassemia
None. Do not give iron
Populations in which beta thal is common
Blacks, greeks, italians
What will you see on Hb electrophoresis in beta thal?
Decrease in HbA, increase in HbA2 and HbF
Most common cause of iron deficiency anemia in a newborn
Bleeding meckels diverticulum
What causes cerebral edema in lead poisoning?
Buildup of delta-lemavinylinic acid
Common lead poisoning scenarios
Child - eating paint. Adults - automobile shop (batteries), moonshine (made in old radiator), pottery painter (lead based paint)
Iron studies in alpha and beta thal
Serum iron - normal, TIBC - high, Saturation - high, Ferritin - high
What are the two main jobs of B12?
Transfer methyl group from folate to homocysteine (to make methionine) and helping with odd chain FA metabolism
How does B12 deficiency lead to neurologic symptoms?
Succinyl CoA builds up (failure of odd chain FA metabolism) and screws up myelin
What drug inhibits intestinal conjugase and what is the effect of this?
Phenytoin. This significantly reduces folate absorption (conjugase has to turn polyglutamate to monoglutamate folate)
What two substances inhibit folate absorption?
OCPs and alcohol
How many lobes does a PMN have to have to be called hypersegmented?
5 or more
Drugs that cause aplastic anemia
Chloramphenical, indomethacin, phenylbutazone, thyroid drugs
Do you get hemoglobinuria in intravascular hemolysis, extravascular hemolysis, or both?
Which type of hemolysis more typically produces jaundice, intravascular or extravascular?
Most common causes of intrinsic hemolysis
MAD. Membrane defect (spherocytosis, PNH), Abnormal Hb (SC), Deficiency of enzyme (G6PD)
In sickle cell disease, what percentage of a cells hemoglobin has to be sickled for the cell to sickle?
What is the most common cause of death in a child with sickle cell disease
Strep pneumo sepsis
At what age does sickle cell disease typically present?
Two x linked recessive enzyme deficiences
G6PD and Lesch-Nyhan
What damages the RBCs in G6PD deficiency and what blood smear finding does it cause?
Peroxide damages hemoglobin, leading to Heinz bodies (Hb clumped together)
What populations is G6PD typically seen in?
Same populations as beta thal - blacks, Greeks, Italians
Two drugs most commonly used in G6PD questions
Primaquine and dapsone
Which is more common, warm or cold agglutinins and what is the most common cause of it?
Warm. Most common cause is lupus
Hypersensitivity reactions to penicillin
Rash - Type 1. Hemolytic anemia - Type 2
How does methyldopa lead to hemolytic anemia?
It alters Rh antigens on RBCs and we end up making antibodies against our own Rh antigens
How does quinidine lead to hemolytic anemia?
It forms immune complexes with IgM
Three main drug induced autoimmune hemolytic anemias and the hypersensitivity type for each
PCN - type 2 (but rash is type 1), Methyldopa - type 2, Quinidine - type 3
What is the most common cause of chronic intravascular hemolysis
What infection in kids can lead to such high WBC counts that we get concerned it might be ALL?
Pertussis. Viral infections can also do it
What do we associated with atypical lymphocytes?
Mononucleosis - EBV
What drug is associated with atypical lymphocytes?
What receptor does EBV use to infect B cells?
Generalized painful lymphadenopathy, exudative tonsilitis, very high transaminases, spleen enlargement
EBV mono. Also get jaundice sometimes and spleen can rupture (no contact sports)
What does the heterophile antibody test use and what does it test for?
Uses anti-horse or anti-sheep RBC antibodies to test for EBV mono
What helminth infection does not cause eosinophilia?
Adult ascariasis (because they stick to the intestine and do not invade)
Which leukemia is also a myeloproliferative disease?
Most common complication of polycythemia rubivera
Thrombosis (most commonly Budd-Chiari)
4 Hs of polycythemia rubivera
Hyperviscosity, Hypovolemia, Histaminemia, Hyperuricemia
A patient takes a shower and gets itchy all over his or her body
Polycythemia rubivera (the increased numbers of mast cells and basophils hang out in skin and degranulate more easily)
What distinguishes between acute and chronic leukemia
Blasts less than 30 percent is chronic, greater than 30 percent is acute
Leukemia in ages 0-14
Leukemia in ages 15-39
Leukemia in ages 40-59
AML or CML (separate with bone marrow looking for blasts or philadelphia chromosome)
Leukemia in 60 and over
What stain can tell the difference between mature neutrophils and neoplastic neutrophils
Leukocyte Alkaline Phosphatase (LAP). Mature will take it up, neoplastic will not
Kid with sternal tenderness, fever, generalized nontender lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, normocytic anemia, WBC count 50,000
ALL. Most commonly CD10+, CALLA+. May be associated with Downs
Elderly patient, smudge cells, normocytic anemia, hypogammaglobulinemia
CLL. High risk of infection (most common cause of death in CLL)
What two tissues are resistant to invasion by cancer cells?
Cartilage and elastic tissue
Langerhans cell histiocytosis looks like a tennis raquet on EM. What else has this look on EM?
Clostridium tetani spores
Where in the lymph nodes are macrophages usually found?
In the sinuses
Reed sternberg cells have an Owls eye appearance. What else has this appearance?
Giardia, CMV, aschoff nodules in rheumatic fever
Woman with mass in anterior mediastinum and neck. Fatigue, night sweats, weight loss.
Nodular Sclerosing Hodgkins. Look for RS cells, be sure to rule out TB if she has a cough
What do pts with Pompe disease typically die of?
Cardiac failure due to excess deposition of normal glycogen in the heart
What do OCPs do that makes them thrombogenic
Increase synthesis of factors 5 and 8, increase synthesis of fibrinogen, inhibit antithrombin 3
How does smoking lead to thrombogenesis?
Damages endothelial cells (exposing collagen to the clotting system)
Where is vWF made?
Megakaryocytes and endothelial cells
What are the effects of PGI2 and TXA2 respectively on blood vessel diameter?
PGI2 is a vasodilator, TXA2 is a vasoconstrictor
What is the main vasoconstrictor in Prinzmetals angina?
Both platelets and mast cells when activated release a preformed chemical then start making chemicals. What are these substances (give the preformed and manufactured for each platelets and mast cells)?
Platelets - preformed is ADP (and others), manufactured is TxA2. Mast cells - preformed is histamine (and 5HT and eosinophil chemotactic factor), manufactured is PGs and leukotrienes
Are petechia, echymoses, and epistaxis more characteristic of platelet or coagulation abnormalities?
What procedure imposes the greatest hemostatic stress on the body?
Wisdom tooth extraction (good question to screen for coagulation disorders)
What is the test for vWF disease?
Ristocetin cofactor assay (ristocetin wont cause platelets to clot if missing vWF)
Factors of the common final pathway (in order)
10, 5, 2, 1
Factors of the intrinsic pathway (in order)
12, 11, 9, 8. Then common final pathway (10, 5, 2, 1)
Best test for DIC
D-dimer. Next best is fibrin split products
How can you tell the difference between petechia and spider angioma (telangiectasia) on physical exam?
Petechia do not blanch but spiger angiomas will (because its an AV fistula)
Kid with epistaxis and spots that do not blanch. Low platelet count
Treatment for ITP
Cotricosteroids if severe, if not severe just leave it alone
Two main causes of HUS
E coli O157H7 and Shigella toxin
Main differences between vWF disease and Hemophilia A
1) Genetics (hemophilia A is XR and vWF is AD), 2) Number of deficiencies (hemophilia A its only 8 anticoagulant, vWF it is 8 Ag, 8 anticoagulant, and vWF), 3) vWF includes symptoms of platelet dysfunction
Why is vWF disease often underdiagnosed in women?
Because OCPs cause increased synthesis of 8 Ag, 8 anticoagulant and vWF (the things deficient in vWF disease), which can mask the disease
What is the difference between anti-AB and anti-A/anti-B?
Anti-AB is IgG whereas anti-A and anti-B are IgM
Diseases associated with AB blood groups
A - gastric cancer, O - duodenal ulcer
What antigen is missing in the black population which makes them less likely to get a malaria and which malaria?
Duffy antigen, reduces chances of getting plasmodium vivax
G6PD, thalassemias, and SCD protect from which malaria?
What is the most common antibody in the US?
What is the most common infection transmitted by blood transfusion?
What is the most common type of hepatitis picked up from transfusion?
What causes febrile transfusion reactions?
HLA antibodies against leukocytes in donor blood
Who is most at risk for febrile reaction with transfusion?
1) Patients who have been transfused before many times. 2) Women (may have picked up HLA Abs from fetal-maternal bleed)
Which Ig is the most potent complement activator?
IgM. It will activate straight C1-C9 and you will get a MAC. Eg. hemolytic transfusion reactions (if wrong blood type given) happen very fast due to IgM
What cells are responsible for delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions?
Memory B cells. Antibodies arent detected on cross-match because the memory B cells are dormant. But once they see an Ag on the transfused blood they start making Ab again
Woman with a difficult delivery (abruptio placenta) one week ago returns with jaundice, anemia, and uncojugated hyperbilirubinemia
Delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction (assuming she was transfused)
If someone has serious surgery and returns with jaundice how can you separate delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction from halothane and from hepatitis?
Delayed hemolytic transfusion - about 1 week, halothane - over a week, hepatitis - 6 to 8 weeks
What type of hypersensitivity is involved in delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions?
Most common cause of jaundice in first 24 hours for a newborn
ABO incompatibility (physiologic jaundice of newborn starts at day 3)
If a baby has ABO incompatability, what blood group must the mom be?
O (because anti-AB is the only one that is IgG and thus the only one that can cross the placenta)
Which leads to a more serious hemolytic anemia, ABO incompatibility or Rh incompatibility?