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Flashcards in Rapid Review Deck (111)
1

Treatment for cryptococcus neoformans

Fluconazole

2

Treatment for CF

N-acetylcysteine + antipseudomonal prophylaxis (tobramycin/azithromycin)

3

Treatment for CMV

Gancicyclovir

4

Treatment for DI

Central - DDAVP. Nephrogenic - HCTZ, indomethacin, amiloride

5

Treatment for enterococci

Vanco/ampicillin + aminoglycoside

6

Treatment for HiB prophylaxis

Rifampin. Vaccine not effective for close contact prophylaxis

7

Treatment for Her2/neu-positive breast cancer

Trastuzumab

8

Treatment for hyperaldosteronism

Spironolactone

9

Treatment for hypertriglyceridemia

Fibrate

10

Treatment for infertility

Leuprolide, GnRH (pulsatile)

11

Treatment for legionella

Erythromycin

12

Treatment for n meningitidis

Penicillin/ceftriaxone. Rifampin for prophylaxis

13

Treatment for prostate cancer/uterine fibroids

Leuprolide, GnRH (continuous)

14

Treatment for pulmonary hypertension

Bosentan

15

Treatment for ringworm infections

Terbinafine, griseofulvin, imidazole

16

Treatment for sporothrix schenckii

Oral KI

17

Treatment for strep pneumo

Penicillin/cephalosporin (systemic infection, pneumonia), vancomycin (meningitis)

18

Treatment for toxoplasma gondii

Sulfadiazine + pyrimethamine

19

Treatment for UTI prophylaxis

Bactrim

20

Treatment for wegeners

Cyclophosphamide, corticosteroids

21

Ascending aortic aneurysm

Marfan (myxomatous changes of cystic medial degeneration)

22

Bleeding disorder with GpIb deficiency

Bernard-Soulier disease (defect in platelet adhesion to vWF)

23

Benign breast tumor

Fibroadenoma

24

Most common cause of constrictive pericarditis (developing and developed world respectively)

Developed world - SLE, Developing world - Tb. In both cases will present with pulsus paradoxus (left heart constriction), pericardial knock, and Kussmauls sign (right heart constriction)

25

Cretinism

Iodine deficiency/hypothyroidism

26

Mets to bone

Breast, lung, thyroid, testes, prostate, kidney

27

Mets to brain

Lung, breast, melanoma, RCC, GI

28

Mets to liver

Colon, gastric, pancreastic, breast, lung

29

Abdominal pain, ascites, hepatomegaly

Budd-Chiari

30

Cafe-au-lait spots, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty

McCune-Albright syndrome (mosaic G-protein signaling mutation)

31

Cherry red spot on macula (3 things)

Tay-Sachs, Niemann-Pick, CRAO

32

Cutaneous/dermal edema due to connective tissue deposition

Myxedema (hypothyroidism, Graves disease, others)

33

Dark purple skin and mouth nodules

Kaposi sarcoma

34

Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea

Pellagra (Vit B3 deficiency)

35

Dilated cardiomypoathy, edema, polyneuropathy

Wet beriberi (Vit B1 deficiency)

36

Erythroderma, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, atypical T cells

Sezary syndrome (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma) or mycosis fungoides

37

Fever, chills, headache, myalgia following antibiotic syphilis treatment

Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (rapid lysis of spirchetes results in toxin release)

38

Fibrous plaques in soft tissue of penis

Peyronies disease (connective tissue disorder)

39

Hepatosplenomegaly, osteoporosis, neurologic symptoms

Gauchers disease

40

Hereditary nephritis, sensorineural hearing loss, cataracts

Alport syndrome

41

Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, hyperdocility

Kluver-Bucy syndrome (bilateral amygdala lesions)

42

Hypoxemia, polycythemia, hypercapnia

Blue bloater (chronic bronchitis)

43

Infant with hypoglycemia, failure to thrive, hepatomegaly

Coris disease (no hepatic fat accumulation unlike von gierkes)

44

Multiple colonic polyps, osteomas/soft tissue tumors, impacted/sumpernumerary teeth

Gardners syndrome (subtype of FAP)

45

Myopathy (infantile hypertrophic cardiomyopathy) exercise intolerance

Pompes disease

46

Painful blue fingers/toes, hemolytic anemia

Cold agglutinin disease (AIHA caused by mycoplasma pneumonia infection or mono)

47

Painful, red raised lesions on palms and soles

Oslers nodes (infective endocarditis)

48

Painless erythematous lesions on palms and soles

Jaineway lesions (infective endocarditis)

49

Painless jaundice

Cancer of the head of the pancreas

50

Rash on palms and soles (3)

Coxsackie A, secondary syphillis, RMSF

51

Recurrent colds, unusual eczema, high serum IgE

Hyper-IgE syndrome (Jobs, neutrophil chemotaxis abnormality)

52

Retinal hemorrhage with pale centers

Roth spots (bacterial endocarditis)

53

Short stature, increased incidence of tumors/leukemia, aplastic anemia

Fanconis anemia (genetic loss of DNA crosslinke repair, often progresses to AML)

54

Smooth, flat, white, moist lesions on genitals

Condyloma lata (secondary syphilis)

55

Strawberry tongue (3)

Kawaski, Scarlet fever (strep pyogenes toxin), toxic shock syndrome

56

Waxy casts with very low urine flow

ESRD

57

Weight loss, diarrhea, arthritis, fever, adenopathy

Whipples disease

58

Anti-topoisomerase antibodies

Diffuse systemic scleroderma

59

Basophilic nuclear remnants in RBCs (name and cause)

Howell-Jolly bodies (due to splenectomy or nonfunctional spleen)

60

Basophilic stippling of RBCs (cause)

Lead poisoning or sideroblastic anemia

61

Bloody tap on LP

SAH

62

Boot shaped heart on x-ray (2)

ToF, RVH

63

Brown tumor of bone (2)

Hyperparathyroidism, Ostieitis fibrosa cystica. Brown color due to hemorrhagic cysts (hemosiderin)

64

Cardiomegaly with apical atrophy

Chagas disease

65

Chocolate cyst of ovary

Endometriosis

66

Circular grouping of dark tumor cells surrounding pale neurofibrils (name and cancers)

Homer-Wright rosettes (neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma, retinoblasotma)

67

Desquamated epithelial casts in sputum

Curshmanns spirals (bronchial asthma, can result in whorled mucous plugs)

68

Enlarged thyroid cells with ground-glass nucleus

Orphan Annie eye nuclei (papillary carcinoma of the thyroid)

69

Eosinophilic cytoplasmic inclusion in nerve cell

Lewy Body (Parkinsons)

70

Eosinophilic globule in liver

Councilman body (toxic or viral hepatitis, often yellow fever)

71

Eosinophilic inclusion bodies in cytoplasm of hippocampal nerve cells

Rabies virus

72

Glomerulus-like structure surrounding vessel in germ cells

Schiller-Duval bodies (yolk sac tumor)

73

Hair on end (crew-cut) apperance on x-ray (2)

B-thalassemia, sickle cell

74

Elevated hCG (2)

Choriocarcinoma, hydatidiform mole

75

Granulomatous heart nodules

Aschoff bodies (rheumatic fever)

76

Hexagonal, double-pointed, needle-like crystals in bronchial secretions

Bronchial asthma (Charcot-Leyden crystal)

77

Honeycomb appearance of lung on x-ray

Interstitial fibrosis

78

Hypochromic, microcytic anemia (3)

Iron deficiency, lead poisoning, thalassemia

79

Increased uric acid levels (4)

Gout, Lesch-Nyhan, tumor lysis syndrome, loop or thiazide diuretics

80

Intranuclear eosinophilic droplet-like bodies

Cowdry Type A bodies (HSV or CMV)

81

Iron-containing nodules in alveolar septum

Ferruginous bodies (asbestosis)

82

Lumpy-bumpy appearance of glomeruli on immunofluorescence

Post strep GN

83

Mammary gland (blue-domed) cyst

Fibrocystic change of the breast

84

Monoclonal antibody spike (4)

Multiple myeloma, MGUS, Waldenstroms, Primary amyloidosis

85

Novoiocin responsiveness

Sensitive - staph epidermis, resistant - staph saprophyticus

86

Optochin responsiveness

Sensitive - strep pneumo, resistant - strep viridans

87

Periosteum raised from bone creating triangular area (3)

Codmans triangle. Osteosarcoma, Ewings sarcoma, pyogenic osteomyelitis

88

Protein aggregates in neurons from hyperphosphorylation of tau (2)

Neurofibrillary tangles. 1) Alzheimers, 2) CJD

89

RBC casts in urine

Acute glomerulonephritis

90

Rectangular, crystal-like cytoplasmic inclusions in Leydig cells

Reinke crystals (Leydig cell tumor)

91

Silver-staining spherical aggregation of tau proteins in neurons (name and cause)

Pick bodies, Picks disease (dementia, changes in personality)

92

Soap bubble appearance in femur or tibia on x-ray

Giant cell tumor of bone (benign)

93

Spikes on basement membrane, dome like subepithelial deposits

Membranous glomerulonephritis (may progress to nephrotic syndrome)

94

Stacks of red blood cells (name and 2 causes)

Roleaux. High ESR, multiple myeloma

95

Thyroid-like appearance of kidney

Chronic bacterial pyelonephritis

96

Tram-track appearance on LM

Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis

97

WBCs that look smudged

CLL

98

Yellow CSF

Xanthochromia (previous subarachnoid hemorrhage)

99

Treatment for anxiety

Buspirone

100

Treatment for arrhythmia in damaged cardiac tissue

Class IB (lidocaine, mexiletine, tocainide)

101

Treatment for breast cancer in postmenopausal woman

Aromatase inhibitor

102

Treatment for carcinoid syndrome

Otreotide

103

Treatment for chalmydia trachomatis

Doxycycline (with cefrtiaxone for gonorrhea coinfection), erythromycin eye drops (for prophylaxis in infants)

104

Treatment for clostridium tetani

Antitoxin + vaccine booster + diazepam

105

Treatment for Crohns disease

Corticosteroids, infliximab

106

Myocarditis

Coxsackie B

107

What does an S3 indicate relative to valvular disease?

Bad MR

108

What cardiac parameter is indicated by an S3?

A high LV EDP

109

Formula for effective renal plasma flow

ERPF = [Upah] x [Urine Flow Rate] / [Ppah] = CLpah

110

Calculations for 95 and 99 pct confidence intervals respectively

95 pct CI = Mean + 1.96 x SD/n^(1/2). For 99 pct CI replace 1.96 with 2.58

111

Formula for odds ratio

OR = (a/b)/(c/d) = ad/bc