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2nd year - Microbiology > Emerging Infections > Flashcards

Flashcards in Emerging Infections Deck (32):
0

What are emerging infections?

New pathogens
Re-emerging infections
drug resistant
Nosocomial
Zoonotic
bioweapons

1

What are new pathogens?

Includes new species and new strains of existing species
e.g. SARS-CoV, H1N1 influenza (pandemic strain)

2

What are re-emerging infections?

Have experienced increased incidence following a period of recession or control of infection in a given area
e.g. Poliomyelitis or malaria

3

What are some examples of re-emerging infections?

MRSA, VRSA
Multidrug resistant tuberculosis
HIV
Influenza A
N. gonorrhoea

4

What is the definition of outbreak?

A sudden unexpected increase in disease incidence

5

What is the definition of epidemic?

A greater prevalence of disease in a population/community than is generally expected in that population at a given time

6

What is the definition of pandemic?

A greater worldwide prevalence of disease than expected at a given time

7

What is the definition of endemic?

refers to a pathogen having a steady prevalence in a given population, area, or community

8

What are nosocomial infections?

An infection acquired by a patient admitted to hospital/health care facility for a reason other than the infection
Infection was not present or incubating in the patient before admittance
signs of infection may appear after discharge
Often opportunistic

9

What are factors associated with incidence of nosocomial infections?

Increased prevalence of pathogen and close contact in hospital setting
decreased immune status in infected population
emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of pathogen
surgery or devices

10

What are some examples of nosocomial infections?

S. aureus
MRSA/VRSA
Candida albicans
C. difficile
UTI
Hospital acquired pneumonia
Surgical site infection
Viruses

11

What are Zoonotic infection?

An infection that is transmitted to a human from another species
May or may not be contagious
e.g rabies

12

What are factors associated with incidence of zoonotic infections?

Increased prevalence of vector in changing climates, increased interactions
Increased prevalence of pathogen in developing areas, loss of natural habitat
Human activity - increased transportation, dmas, deforestation
Complex interactions between environment, vector, and host (7 generations)

13

What are the at risk groups for zoonotic infections?

Occupational risk (butchers, farmers etc)
Activity (camping, swimming)
Animal scratches/bites (rabies, arboviruses)

14

What are some examples of zoonotic infections?
* You should be able to define the vector for a disease for the final

Flavivirus
Rabies
SARS CoV
Influenza A
Yersinia pestis
Plasmodium falciparum

15

What is the machupo virus spread by?

Bolivian hemorrhagic fever
Large vesper mouse, machupo virus harmless persistent infection in bush mice
DDT leads to shortage to cats = more mice = mice invade human dwellings

16

What are bioweapons?

May involve pathogens with limited or no current prevalence
Historic and contemporary usage: smallpox, anthrax

17

What are category B criteria for bioweapons?

Are moderately easy to disseminate
result in moderate morbidity rates and low mortality rates
require specific enhancements of CDCs diagnositc capacity and enhanced disease surveillance

18

What are category C bioweapons?

easily available
easy to produce and disseminate
high mortality and high morbidity

19

What are device associated infections?

Are generally nosocomial
Are associated with a number of opportunistic pathogens
includes catheters, shunts, prostheses
plastic devices are prone to colonization by bacteria, biofilm formation
Symptoms related to site of infection, sepsis always a risk

20

What are the symptoms related to intravasular catheters?

Pain, inflammation, erythema, purulent discharge at exit site, low-grade fever
Diagnosis via analysis of exit site swab

21

What are the symptoms related to ambulatory peritoneal dialysis catheters?

Pain, inflammation, erythema, purulent d/c
Peritonitis w/ abdominal pain, fever, nausea, vomiting
Tachychardia, increased WBC in dialysis fluid
Diagnosis via analysis of exit site swab or dialysis fluid

22

What are the symptoms of a urinary catheter infection?

flank pain, pressure or spasm near the bladder, hematuria, cloudy urine, fever
Diagnosis via urinalysis via catheter
- Any bacterial numbers are considered significant when sample is taken via catheter
- No introduction of bacteria from the urinary tract

23

What are the symptoms of prosthetic joint infection?
*Important because joints can only be replaced so many times, preventative antibiotics

Joint/bone pain, tenderness, inflammation, fever
Loosing of prosthetic joint, low grade bacteremia
Chronic infection - requires removal of the prosthesis
Diagnosis via analysis of joint aspirate: Culture, stain, PCR (pathogen associated gene), CRP, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, elevated leukocytes, sinus tract formation

24

What are the symptoms of CSF shunt infection?

Symptoms appear months to years after surgery
Ventriculoatrial (VA) shunt infections - fever, tachycardia, rigors, rash, arthralgia, anemia, myalgia
Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt - vomiting, headache, visual disturbance, abdominal distension

25

What benefits do the use of microbes have for a host?

Increase immune capacity
Compete with pathogenic organisms/microbes
Target pathogenic organisms/microbes

26

What are preventative/therapeutic approaches of microbiology?

Probiotics
Prebiotics
Synbiotics

27

What are emerging therapeutic microbiology approaches?

Bacteriophage
Fecal transplantation

28

What are probiotics used for?

Gastrointestinal disorders
Genito-urinary tract infections
Skin

29

What is the function of host microbiome?

Provides a delicate balance between health and disease
- use of probiotics long term immune stimulation, good or bad?
- proinflammatory treatments vs. anti-inflammatory treatments indications and CIs

30

What are prebiotics/synbiotics?

Are nonliving non digestible factors that contribute to the growth of probiotics

31

What is phage therapy?

Using bacteriophages as antibiotics