Semester 2: STIs, UTIs, Obstetric/Perinatal Infections Flashcards Preview

2nd year - Microbiology > Semester 2: STIs, UTIs, Obstetric/Perinatal Infections > Flashcards

Flashcards in Semester 2: STIs, UTIs, Obstetric/Perinatal Infections Deck (35):
1

What are the anatomical barriers of the reproductive tract?

Skin
Access to mucosal sites/primary sites of infection

2

What are the mucosal barriers of the reproductive tract?

pH does not favour growth of pathogens
Flushing action of fluids
Circulating immune cells

3

What factors influence susceptibility to STIs?

Age (child bearing age for women)
Immune status
Gender (anatomical, transmission, in men circumcision, hormonal)
Concominant STIs
Social behaviour: sexual education, unprotected sex
Asymptomatic infections

4

What are the sources of STIs

Mucosal
Breaches in skin - oral, anal
Shared blood/blood products

5

Where do STIs most commonly effect?

Most STIs affect reproductive tract, oral, anal cavities

6

What are bacterial sources of STIs

Neisseria gonorrhea
Chlamydia trachomatis
Treponema pallidum
Mycoplasma sp
Ureaplasma sp

7

What are the viral sources of STIs

Herpes simplex virus (HSV)
Human papillomavirus (HPV)
Hep B
Hep C (low risk)
HIV

8

What are the fungal sources of STIs

Candida albicans
Trichomonas vaginalis

9

What are the ectoparasite sources of STIs?

Phthirus pubis - pubic lice
Sarcoptes scabiei - scabies

10

What are some complications of STIs?

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
Bacterial Vaginosis
Cancer
Neurological events (HIV, syphilis)
Sterility (chronic/untreated infections)

11

What are some signs and symptoms of PID?

Range, many asymptomatic
Lower abdominal pain, fever, cervical motion tenderness, cervical inflammation
Inflammation of uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries

12

What are some complications of untreated PID?

May lead to infertility, ectopic pregnancy

13

What is PID a common sequelae of?

Gonorrhea and chlamydia infection in women

14

What are the causes of bacterial vaginosis?

Unknown but linked to STI, antibiotic usage, douching, imbalance in flora composiiton

15

What are some signs and symptoms of bacterial vaginosis?

Abnormal vaginal discharge, foul-smelling, white or grey in colour
Burning sensations while urnating, vaginal itching

16

What are some complications of bacterial vaginosis?

Increased risk of PID and associated complications, preterm labour and low birth weight. Increased risk of STI transmission

17

What cancers are complications of STIs?

HPV cervical cancer
HIV Kaposi's sarcoma

18

What are anatomical factors influencing susceptibility to UTI?

Length of urethra
Disruption of urine flow, bladder voiding
Congential
Surgery/catheterization
Disease-related (neurological, mechanical)

19

What are some factors in men influencing susceptibility to UTIs?

Circumcision
Enlarged prostate

20

What are some factors in women influencing susceptibility to UTIs?

Sexual intercourse
pH changes, hormonal changes, pregnancy

21

What are some pathogenic sources of UTIs?

E. coli (80%)
Coagulase negative staphylococci (10%)
S. aureus, enterococcus faecalis, pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella sp, Enterobacter sp.
C. albicans
Viral causes rare (CMV, adenovirus, mumps, rubella); associated with hemorrhagic cystitis
"SEEK PP"

22

What are some sources of UTIs?

Colonization of the urinary tract (sexual intercourse, hygiene, ascending infection)
Hematogenous spread of another infection (kidneys, descending infection)
Device related (urinary catheter)

23

What are the clinical features of UTIs

Urethritis - blood in urine, painful urination/ejaculation, vaginal d/c
Cystitis - cloudy/bloody urine, abdominal pain, fever
Pyelonephritis - fever, vomiting, abdominal pain, long term kd dysfunction, kd failure, high BP
Prostatitis - fever, chills, urinary dysfunction
Epididymitis - low grade fever/chills, testicular inflammation and pain

24

How are UTIs diagnosed?

Urinalysis - culture, microscopy, dipstick test, nitrite test for enterobacteriaceae
Ultrasound - obstruction, kidney stones
X-ray - structural

25

What are the complications of UTIs?

Long term pyelonephritis may lead to kd dysfunction/failure
Sepsis
In men - epididymitis may lead to sterlitiy

26

What is the treatment for UTIs?

Antimicrobial sparing strategies important due to emerging antibiotic resistance (20-30% self-resolving) but untreated can lead to renal complications

27

What infections may be reactivated during pregnancy?

CMV, EBV, HSV

28

What infections may cause serious effects during pregnancy?

Malaria
UTI, Candidiasis
Influenza
Viral hepatitis

29

What infections may cross the placental barrier?

Torch
Toxoplasmosis, Treponema
Other (Parvo, varicella, TB)
Rubella
CMV
HSV, HIV

30

What are the potential fetal complications with toxoplasmosis?

fetal malformation

31

What are the potential fetal complications with Treponema?

musocal, skin lesions, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly

32

What are potential fetal complications of CMV?

Deafness, mental retardation

33

What are potential fetal complications of HSV?

Disseminated neonatal infection

34

What infections may be passed on to the newborn during childbirth?

N. gonorrheae: neonatal conjunctivitis
C. trachomatis: neonatal conjunctivits/pneumonia
HSV: infection skin/eye/mouth
Genital HPV: laryngeal warts
GBS: septicemia, death
C. albicans: neonatal oral thrush
HIV: childhood AIDS

35

What infections may be passed to newborns via breast milk?

HIV
HTLV
CMV
Rubella