Flashcards in Semester 2 - Respiratory Tract Infections Deck (29)
Where do most primary respiratory infections occur?
Upper respiratory tract
Where do most secondary/severe respiratory infections occur?
Lower respiratory tract
Trachea, primary bronchi, lungs
What are the physical barriers of the respiratory system?
Nasal cavity - hair
What are the mucosal barriers of the respiratory system?
Saliva, mucous lining - sloughing, anti-microbial peptides
MALT - macrophages, T and B cells
What are the Innate immune functions of the respiratory defense mechanisms?
Natural killer cells
What are the physiological functions of the respiratory defense mechanisms?
Coughing, mucus production
What are some factors influencing susceptibility to respiratory tract infection?
Disease conditions or medications (diabetes, cancer, genetic disorders etc)
Seasonal patterns of infection - winter (why?)
What are sources of primary RT infections?
May be viral or bacterial
'common cold' viral
What are sources of secondary RT infections?
Occur due to decreased immune capacity during primary infection
What are s/sx of rhinits/sinusitis?
Inflammation of nasal cavities/sinuses
Rhinorrhea, nasal d/c, loss of smell, cough, sore throat, fever, headache, toothache, pressure like pain (eyes, teeth, face)
Common cold - most RT infections
What are s/sx of pharyngitis?
Inflammation of the pharynx
sore throat, fever, headache, lymphangitis
Group A strep, C. pneumoniae, others
What are s/sx of laryngitis?
Inflammation of larynx
Loss of voice, hoarseness of voice
Many causes, more severe URT infection, typically viral
What are s/sx of tonsilitis?
Sore throat, difficulty swallowing, tenderness of jaw and throat, peritonsilar abscess (rare, blocking of airways leading to respiratory failure, risk of rupture leading to pneumonia)
Many causes, more severe URT infection (Strep throat)
What are the s/sx of parotitis?
Swelling/redness of the neck/face, mouth/facial pain, difficulty opening mouth. Abnormal/foul tastes. Mumps
What are the s/sx of otitis media?
Fluid/mucus accumulation, ear pain
Difficulty with sleep, hearing, balance
Redness or blistering of the tympanic membrane
Secondary to URT infection (more commonly in children) usually bacterial (NTHI)
What are the s/sx of epiglottitis/tracheitis
Abnormal breathing, difficulty breathing/swallowing
Epiglottitis life-threatening (airway obstruction, cyanosis, respiratory distress)
Bacterial causes common (Hib, H. parainfluenzae, S. pneumoniae)
What are the s/sx of bronchitis?
Coughing, mucus production, wheezing, SOB, chest tightness
Viral causes most common (influenza, rhino, corona, adeno), bacterial causes often secondary (Hib, S. pneumoniae)
What are the four most common viral causes of bronchitis?
Influenza, rhino, corona, adeno
What are the s/sx of bronchiolitis?
more common in children
Coughing, wheezing, SOB, difficulty breathing
RSV most common
What are the s/sx of pleuritis/pleurisy?
Chest pain, difficulty taking deep breaths
Fluid accumulation in chest cavity - cyanosis, SOB, tachypnea
Viral more common (influenza, parainfluenza), bacterial (M.tb, strep)
What are the s/sx of pneumonia?
Inflammation of the alveoli, consolidation of the lung (x-ray)
Cough with phlegm, wheezing, difficulty breathing
Fever, chills, fatigue
Viral and bacterial (influenza, RSV, adeno, M.tb, S.pneumo, CAP)
Who is most likely to have a viral pneumonia?
Immune competent individuals
Who is most likely to have bacterial pneumonia?
Secondary to an infection, immunocompromised patients
What are the viral sources of respiratory infections
Orthomyxovirus (influenza virus)
Paramyxoviruses (parainfluenza, RSV)
What are parasitic sources of respiratory infection?
What are bacterial sources of respiratory infection?
Group A strep
What are the fungal sources of respiratory infections?
What are some strategies to prevent RT infections?
Vaccines (limited scope)