Semester 2 - Respiratory Tract Infections Flashcards Preview

2nd year - Microbiology > Semester 2 - Respiratory Tract Infections > Flashcards

Flashcards in Semester 2 - Respiratory Tract Infections Deck (29):
1

Where do most primary respiratory infections occur?

Upper respiratory tract
Nasal cavity
Pharynx
Larynx

2

Where do most secondary/severe respiratory infections occur?

(pneumonia, bronchitis)
Lower respiratory tract
Trachea, primary bronchi, lungs

3

What are the physical barriers of the respiratory system?

Skin
Nasal cavity - hair

4

What are the mucosal barriers of the respiratory system?

Saliva, mucous lining - sloughing, anti-microbial peptides
MALT - macrophages, T and B cells

5

What are the Innate immune functions of the respiratory defense mechanisms?

Natural killer cells
cytokine production/inflammation

6

What are the physiological functions of the respiratory defense mechanisms?

Coughing, mucus production

7

What are some factors influencing susceptibility to respiratory tract infection?

Immune competency
Disease conditions or medications (diabetes, cancer, genetic disorders etc)
Stress (why?)
Seasonal patterns of infection - winter (why?)

8

What are sources of primary RT infections?

May be viral or bacterial
'common cold' viral

9

What are sources of secondary RT infections?

Commonly bacterial
Occur due to decreased immune capacity during primary infection

10

What are s/sx of rhinits/sinusitis?

Inflammation of nasal cavities/sinuses
Rhinorrhea, nasal d/c, loss of smell, cough, sore throat, fever, headache, toothache, pressure like pain (eyes, teeth, face)
Common cold - most RT infections

11

What are s/sx of pharyngitis?

Inflammation of the pharynx
sore throat, fever, headache, lymphangitis
Group A strep, C. pneumoniae, others

12

What are s/sx of laryngitis?

Inflammation of larynx
Loss of voice, hoarseness of voice
Many causes, more severe URT infection, typically viral

13

What are s/sx of tonsilitis?

Sore throat, difficulty swallowing, tenderness of jaw and throat, peritonsilar abscess (rare, blocking of airways leading to respiratory failure, risk of rupture leading to pneumonia)
Many causes, more severe URT infection (Strep throat)

14

What are the s/sx of parotitis?

Swelling/redness of the neck/face, mouth/facial pain, difficulty opening mouth. Abnormal/foul tastes. Mumps

15

What are the s/sx of otitis media?

Fluid/mucus accumulation, ear pain
Difficulty with sleep, hearing, balance
Redness or blistering of the tympanic membrane
Secondary to URT infection (more commonly in children) usually bacterial (NTHI)

16

What are the s/sx of epiglottitis/tracheitis

Abnormal breathing, difficulty breathing/swallowing
Epiglottitis life-threatening (airway obstruction, cyanosis, respiratory distress)
Bacterial causes common (Hib, H. parainfluenzae, S. pneumoniae)

17

What are the s/sx of bronchitis?

Coughing, mucus production, wheezing, SOB, chest tightness
Viral causes most common (influenza, rhino, corona, adeno), bacterial causes often secondary (Hib, S. pneumoniae)

18

What are the four most common viral causes of bronchitis?

Influenza, rhino, corona, adeno

19

What are the s/sx of bronchiolitis?

more common in children
Coughing, wheezing, SOB, difficulty breathing
RSV most common

20

What are the s/sx of pleuritis/pleurisy?

Chest pain, difficulty taking deep breaths
Fluid accumulation in chest cavity - cyanosis, SOB, tachypnea
Viral more common (influenza, parainfluenza), bacterial (M.tb, strep)

21

What are the s/sx of pneumonia?

Inflammation of the alveoli, consolidation of the lung (x-ray)
Cough with phlegm, wheezing, difficulty breathing
Fever, chills, fatigue
Viral and bacterial (influenza, RSV, adeno, M.tb, S.pneumo, CAP)

22

Who is most likely to have a viral pneumonia?

Immune competent individuals

23

Who is most likely to have bacterial pneumonia?

Secondary to an infection, immunocompromised patients

24

What are the viral sources of respiratory infections

Picornavirus (rhinovirus)
Orthomyxovirus (influenza virus)
Paramyxoviruses (parainfluenza, RSV)
Coronavirus
Adenovirus

25

What are parasitic sources of respiratory infection?

Schistosoma sp.
Ascaris lumbricoides
Toxoplasma gondii

26

What are bacterial sources of respiratory infection?

H. influenza
Group A strep
Legionella pneumophile
Bacillus anthracis
Bordatella pertussis
Corynebacterium diptheria
Yersina pestis
Mycobacterium tuberculosis

27

What are the fungal sources of respiratory infections?

Blastomyces dermatiditis
Histoplasma capsulatum
Pneumocystitis jiroveci

28

What are some strategies to prevent RT infections?

Immune stimulants
Proper nutrition
Hygiene/transmission control
Vaccines (limited scope)

29

What are some strategies to control RT infections?

Immune stimulants vs. suppressants
Supportive therapies
Transmission control
Antibiotics/antivirals etc