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Flashcards in Emotion and the brain Deck (52)
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1
Q

which part of the nervous system do emotions stem from ?

A

the autonomic nervous system. This part of the nervous system is made up of the parasympathetic and the sympathetic nervous system.

2
Q

What is James Langes theory of emotion ? How does it differ to the common sense view of emotion ?

A

James lange theory is that we see a stimulus and the action the body takes stimulates the emotion. e.g. seeing a snake , the running away action gives the emotion of fear.
The common sense view of emotion is that the stimulus causes the emotion , which in turn causes the action.

3
Q

What are the three components of emotion ?

A

cognition , Feelings and actions

4
Q

What assumptions/predictions can be made from James Langes theory ? Are they correct ?

A

One could assume that people with paralysis , who therefore cannot undergo an action such as running away , will not be able to feel the same emotions as someone without paralysis because they cannot complete the same actions. This has not been proven correct: people with paralysis due to spinal injury have reported feeling the same emotions as before they were paralysed.

another assumption that can be made is that increasing someones actions can lead to enhancing their emotions , e.g. breathing heavily and rapidly can sometimes induce panic attacks

5
Q

What are the alternative theories to James Langes theory?

A

Walter Canon asked the question , how does the body and brain differentiate between the situations and the emotions e.g. , how does the brain know the difference in emotions of running away from something and running towards it ?

canon-bard Asked why we don’t feel scared with something such as a temperature rise, even though this causes the same autonomic pattern in the brain.

Schacter and Singer suggest that the event simultaneously triggers the response of the autonomic nervous system response and the emotional experience in the brain.

6
Q

What parts of the brain are linked to the disgust emotions ?§

A

The insular cortex and the Basal Ganglia

Damage to these areas revealed problems for patients with recognising disgust in facial expressions.

7
Q

What role are hormones thought to play in emotion ?

A

An increase in Testosterone in women lead to a delay in them recognising anger in facial expressions.

Serotonin is released while a person is being aggressive
while it is not directly linked to aggressive behaviours an increase in serotonin can cause a person to be less inhibited /more impulsive

8
Q

What part of the brain receives input from pain, vision and hearing receptors and is linked to the pons ?

A

The Amygdala

9
Q

What parasite causes an effect on the Amygdala, and what effects does it have ?

A

Toxoplasma gondii - a parasite that is released in cat feaces, The parasite then reaches the animals that burrow in the ground such as rats and mice. the parasite effects the amygdala in the brain and causes them to be less fearful of the cats and not understand the threat they are. The cat will eat the mice and rats, the parasite re enters their body and the cycle restarts

10
Q

What is Urbach- Weithe disease ?

A

This disease causes Calcium build up on the Amygdala, causing it to die. The patient recorded with this reported that after watching a scary film , they only felt excitement , not fear.
When she reported she hated snakes, she was still happy to hold one as she didn’t understand the threat.
The patient was able to draw all other facial expressions, but when asked to draw fear she didn’t draw a facial expression, she only drew a persons hair standing on end.

11
Q

What are the types of memory ?

A

Long term memory and short term memory

12
Q

What helps memories to consolidate more rapidly ?

A

emotional significance to the memory will make it consolidate faster . this is because they are often paired with adrenaline and with cortisol.

13
Q

Why is Adrenaline and Cortisol important in memory consolidation ?

A

They will stimulate the Amygdala, enhancing the consolidation and storage of the memory

14
Q

What is working memory ? Why is it worse in older people ?

A

working memory is the storage of information of a stimulus after paying attention to it then having a delay period. As age increases the number of neurons linked to the receptors will decrease. This means that the older people will need to use more parts of their brain and have more parts activated, which requires more effort.

15
Q

what are the two types of amnesia?

A

Anterograde amnesia is when the person is unable to form memories of events after surgery
Retrograde amnesia is when the person cannot retrieve memories prior to surgery.

16
Q

What is the difference in Somantic memory and Episodic memory ?

A

somatic memory is the retrieval of knowledge

episodic memory is emotional memories and the events they are linked to

17
Q

Some amnesiacs cannot retrieve memories on demand , what part of their memory is impaired ?

A

explicit or declarative memories

18
Q

Where are more recent memories retrieved from ?

A

The hippocampus

19
Q

Where is the basal ganglia found ?

A

the base of the forebrain

20
Q

why are children thought to be suggestible ?

A

Memories and the details can be changed and altered

21
Q

What is Korsakoffs syndrome ?

A

Korsakoffs syndrom is caused by chronic alcoholism , the brain will lose neurone connections and the patient will struggle with memory retrieval and will make things up in their heads. The high levels of alcohol in the system causes a reduction of thiamine which leads to the brain problems

22
Q

What affects does alzheimers disease have on the brain dn the patient ?

A

Alzheimers is caused by a build up of amyloid b protein inside and outside the neurone. It causes holes and tangles in the hippocampus that shrink the brain. The patients will not be able to retrieve memories. they can learn new skills but would not be able to recall how they learned them.

23
Q

what are the characteristics of someone with damage to their temporal lobes ?

A

Someone with prefrontal lobe damage will not be able to link together knowledge for example , they would not be able to name the colours of fruits. they will lose their semantic memory.

24
Q

why do children struggle with the marshmallow reward test ?

A

Their Orbit Frontal cortex will mature slowely , this part of the brain is linked to reward and how the reward links to other choices available. children will not be able to see that if they wait longer , instead of eating the marshmallow straight away, the reward will be bigger ( 2 marshmallows )

25
Q

What is the difference in patients with early onset depression and late onset depression?

A

Patients with early onset depression are below the age of 30 , they are more likely to have a family history of depression.
Late onset patients are 40 plus, they are more likely to have a history of circulatory problems in their families.

26
Q

what is borna disease ?

A

Borna disease is a viral infection in farm animals, it causes them to be lethargic and have periods of frantic activity. all of the people who were tested for the born disease and were positive, also had depression.

27
Q

What are other causes of depression ? Why are they said to be correlatory ?

A

Hormones : postpartum depression occurs in women just after delivering babies because of the dramatic change in hormones in their body.
Men drop in their levels of testosterone as they get older, which is linked to depression.
Cortisol is linked to stress and depression.
The hormones are said to be correlatory links because there is not a causal link between hormones and depression.

28
Q

What do antidepressant drugs do ?

name three

A

The role of antidepressant drugs is to affect the levels of serotonin in the synaptic cleft.
Tricyclics - block the proteins that reabsorb serotonin
Prozacs - are specific to serotonin
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors - block enzymes , make serotonin inactive

29
Q

What is bipolar ?

A

Depression is usually unipolar- the patient will feel only one plane of the absence of happiness.
bipolar patients can be one of the two extreme poles : mania - when the patient is incredible excitable, happy , restless and impulsive
depressive states.

30
Q

What are the two types of bipolar ?

A

bipolar 1 - full blown stages of mania - the person can be a danger to themselves
bipolar 2 - the episodes of mania are milder

31
Q

what are treatments for bipolar ?

A

lithium salts are meant to balance the emotions and moods of the person with bipolar.
Valporate and carbamazepine - block the synthesis of acids that are produced when the brain is inflamed.

32
Q

what part of the brain are mood disorders linked to ?

A

the reduced activity of the left hemisphere of the brain

33
Q

What is schizophrenia ? what patients is it more prevalent in ?

A

Schizophrenia is a split mind - the person will have a split between their emotional and intellectual experiences.
It is usually prevalent in people with lower IQs , people with diets high in sugar and fats.

34
Q

What are positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia ?

A

positive symptoms are behaviours that are present but should be absent e.g. : hallucinations , disorganised speech , disorganised behaviours
negative symptoms are behaviours that should be present but are absent : weak signs of emotion.

35
Q

What factors are linked to schizophrenia ?

A

poor diets in the mothers - schizophrenic mothers are more likely to drink, smoke and eat badly during pregnancy
genetic link- more common in biological families
drug use

36
Q

What are Benzodiazepines ?

A

benzodiazepines are anti-anxiety drugs which work as tranquillisers to stop neurotransmitters

37
Q

Who believed in the ‘collective unconscious’ and what is it ?

A

Jung believed in the collective unconscious- it is the theory that the myths and beliefs that are shared by a number of people are the collective unconscious

38
Q

what type of therapy will use positive reinforcement to stop unwanted behaviours ?

A

Aversive therapies

39
Q

Which of the following is not an example of behavioural therapy :
a-token economy
b-mindfullness meditation
c-systamatic desensitisation

A

Mindfullness meditation - it teaches the patient to think about themselves, their mind and the world around them

40
Q

What is a double blind experiment ?

A

When the patient or the therapist/doctor do NOT know what treatments are being used on the patient. This removes any results from bias or wishful thinking.

41
Q

What stimulates the fight or flight response ?

A

Adrenocorticotropic hormone is released from the pituitary gland which activates the adrenal gland.

42
Q

what is repressive coping ?

A

When the person surpresses their thoughts , they instead think of something else and do not actively manage their feelings

43
Q

what is the medical model ?

who introduced the medical model ?

A

the medical model is an approach to looking at mental health disorders. It was introduces by Emil Krapeulin. It looks at the symptoms , causes and potential treatments

44
Q

What is ICD-10 ?

A

International Statistical Classificaion of disease- world health organisations way of diagnosing disorders in Europe

45
Q

If a person has 2 or more disorders what are they described as ?

A

Co-morbidity

46
Q

what is morbity?

A

The representative appearance of a disorder in a population

47
Q

What term is used to describe a person who has a predisposition to depress and stress is the external trigger ?

A

Stress- diathesis

48
Q

what is the symptom-oriented approach to mental health ?

A

The symptom - oriented approach allows multiple causal pathways and looks at the diminutional characteristics of the symptoms

49
Q

What theory was Martin Seligman well known for ?

A

Martin Seligman had a preparedness theory that humans were hard wired to be scared of some things but not others

50
Q

What is the difference in dissociative amnesia and dissociative fugue ?

A

a person will dissociative amnesia will lose memories of personal information
a person with dissociative fugue will loose their personal history and will take on another identity

51
Q

What term is used to describe someone with a fracturing of their personality to cope with a traumatic event ?

A

Dissociative - identity

52
Q

What symptoms are present in type 1 schizophrenia ?

A

a person with type 1 schizophrenia will have positive symptoms . Positive symptoms are those that shouldn’t be present but are such as delusions and hallucinations