EMT Pharmacology Flashcards Preview

My EMT > EMT Pharmacology > Flashcards

Flashcards in EMT Pharmacology Deck (10)
Loading flashcards...
1

Epinephrine

- anaphylaxis: difficulty breathing, rapid/weak pulse, hives, rapid decrease in bp

- Mechanism of action: peripheral vasoconstriction, increase HR and BP
- indications: anaphylaxis, rapid weak pulse, hives, difficulty breathing
- contraindications: expired, hypersensitivity
- complications: clothes in the way
- side effects: tachycardia, hypertension, restless, anxious
- interactions: dilates bronchioles and vasoconstriction = increase HR and ability to breathe
- route and dose: intramuscularly mid-thigh 90 degree angle, 1-auto injector (0.3 adults, 0.15 kids)

2

Narcotic/opioid overdose

S/S:
- ALOC
- pinpoint pupils
- depressed breathing/respiratory arrest
- cool, clammy, cyanosis
- frequent vomiting
- unresponsive/extreme sleepiness

Treat:
- Naloxone (Narcan) 1mg/nostril

3

Naloxone (Narcan)

- Indication: suspected opioid overdose - reverse the effects of narcotic OD - (depressed breathing, pinpoint pupils, decreased LOC, cool, clammy, cyanosis, vomiting)

- Contraindication: allergic, expired, extreme sensitivity, no medical direction

- Complication: deviated septum

- Side effects: combative, severe withdrawal, vomiting

- Interaction: kicks opioids off brain receptors, temporarily replacing them

- dose/route: 1ml per nasal, intranasally

4

Oral Glucose

- indications: hypoglycemia (<80 BG, cool, clammy, pale, ALOC,

- contraindications: decreasing LOC, inability to swallow, expires, lack of medical direction

- complications: lose consciousness, choke

- side effects: nausea and vomiting

- dose and route: 1/2 - 1 tube, orally

- 5 rights (patient, medication, dose, route, time, document!)

5

Aspirin (Acetylsalicylic acid)

- indications: chest pain

- contraindications: allergic, decreasing LOC, recent bleeding, recent alcohol consumption

- complications: choke, can’t swallow

- side effects: nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, bleeding, allergic Rxn, Reye’s syndrome in pediatrics

- route and dose: 160-325 mg, orally (pills)

- mechanism of action: blood thinner, anti-inflammatory, fever reduction

6

Oxygen

- indications: suspected hypoxia

- contraindications: unsafe environment

- complications: unstable airway

- side effects: COPD patients could get rare respiratory depression —> don’t give to stroke patients higher than 94% because O2 is a slight vasoconstrictor which could make the brain bleed worse

- dose/route:
- 1-6 L/min (nasal cannula)
- 10-15 L/min (non-rebreather or BVM)
- inhaled

7

Nitroglycerin

- indications: chest pain, suspected or history of angina or myocardial infarction

- contraindications: hypotension (low BP), head injury, not prescribed, expired, no medical direction

- complications: unconscious

- side effects: tachycardia, hypotension, headache, burning under tongue, nausea, vomiting

- dose/route: 0.4 mg spray/tablet, sublingual (under tongue)

- mechanism of action: vasodilation, decreased myocardial O2 demand, increase myocardial O2 supply (lower BP, easier blood flow)

8

Activated charcoal

- indications: invested poison

- contraindications: decrease LOC, inability to swallow, ingestion if acids/alkalis/hydrocarbons, pediatric patient, expired, lack of medical direction

- complications: takes up to an hour to kick in, shake bottle (b/c settling), suction ready, temporary relief

- side effects: nausea, vomiting, dark/tarry still, black around mouth

- dose/route: adult 1g per 1kg body weight, orally (drink)
- mechanism of action: binds to drugs/chemicals/poison to prevent GI absorption

9

Albuterol

Bronchodilator used to relive signs and symptoms of asthma

10

Benzodiazepines

Psychoactive drug used for: anxiety, seizures, spasm

Overdose can cause hypersomnolence (excessive sleepiness), slurred speech, ataxia, and altered mental status