Enamel homeostasis & the development of caries Flashcards Preview

BDS 2: Adult Restorative > Enamel homeostasis & the development of caries > Flashcards

Flashcards in Enamel homeostasis & the development of caries Deck (19)
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Give some examples of tooth mineral loss by mechanical wear (3)

- Attrition (grinding)
- Abfraction (acid+chewing)
- Abrasion


Define primary caries

Lesions on unrestored surfaces


Define secondary caries

Lesions adjacent to fillings


Define residual caries

Demineralised tissue left behind before a filling is place


Define active caries

Caries that is considered to be progressive


Define arrested caries

Caries that is no longer progressing


What is a white spot lesion?

First sign visible by naked eye, usually visble with strong white light


What is a brown spot lesion?

Usually an inactive white spot lesion discoloured by the uptake of dye


What is rampant caries?

Multiple active carious lesions in the same patient


What is hidden caries?

Caries that are usually in dentine and only detectable by radiography


Why do the earliest visible lesions appear as chalky white spots?

As micropores appear in the enamel surface which scatter light to give off a white appearance


Explain subsurface demineralisation

Acid from the bacteria leach past tooth surface and start demineralising the sub surface to eventually erode away the enamel surface


What happens to the Ca2+ concentration in saliva when pH of the mouth drops to 4?

What is the benefit of this change occur?

- Vastly increases

- To protect the enamel surfaces


How are calcium levels in the saliva so rapidly increased during a cariogenic attack?

- At normal pH: Calcium binding salivary proteins hold onto Ca2+.
- At acidic pH: The proteins undergo changes to allow the release of these Ca2+ molecules


Name some salivary proteins related to tissue maintenance (4)

- Proline-rich proteins
- Histidine-rich proteins
- Cysteine-rich proteins
- Tyrosine-rich proteins


What could cause xerostomia? (5)

- Autoimmune disease
- H&N radiotherapy
- Salivary gland disease
- Medication
- Aplasia of salivary glands


What is Iatrogenic Xerostomia?

When drugs cause xerostomia


Explain the changes to the Stephan curve for a xerostomic patient

pH levels will rise back to 7 at a much slower rate


What is the modern day approach to cariology?

- Minimally invasive
- Therapeutic rather than surgical
- Treatment of Caries and Erosion with Drugs based on Salivary Proteins
- Molecular Dentistry