Enamel homeostasis & the development of caries Flashcards Preview

BDS 2: Adult Restorative > Enamel homeostasis & the development of caries > Flashcards

Flashcards in Enamel homeostasis & the development of caries Deck (19)
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1

Give some examples of tooth mineral loss by mechanical wear (3)

- Attrition (grinding)
- Abfraction (acid+chewing)
- Abrasion

2

Define primary caries

Lesions on unrestored surfaces

3

Define secondary caries

Lesions adjacent to fillings

4

Define residual caries

Demineralised tissue left behind before a filling is place

5

Define active caries

Caries that is considered to be progressive

6

Define arrested caries

Caries that is no longer progressing

7

What is a white spot lesion?

First sign visible by naked eye, usually visble with strong white light

8

What is a brown spot lesion?

Usually an inactive white spot lesion discoloured by the uptake of dye

9

What is rampant caries?

Multiple active carious lesions in the same patient

10

What is hidden caries?

Caries that are usually in dentine and only detectable by radiography

11

Why do the earliest visible lesions appear as chalky white spots?

As micropores appear in the enamel surface which scatter light to give off a white appearance

12

Explain subsurface demineralisation

Acid from the bacteria leach past tooth surface and start demineralising the sub surface to eventually erode away the enamel surface

13

What happens to the Ca2+ concentration in saliva when pH of the mouth drops to 4?

What is the benefit of this change occur?

- Vastly increases

- To protect the enamel surfaces

14

How are calcium levels in the saliva so rapidly increased during a cariogenic attack?

- At normal pH: Calcium binding salivary proteins hold onto Ca2+.
- At acidic pH: The proteins undergo changes to allow the release of these Ca2+ molecules

15

Name some salivary proteins related to tissue maintenance (4)

- Proline-rich proteins
- Histidine-rich proteins
- Cysteine-rich proteins
- Tyrosine-rich proteins

16

What could cause xerostomia? (5)

- Autoimmune disease
- H&N radiotherapy
- Salivary gland disease
- Medication
- Aplasia of salivary glands

17

What is Iatrogenic Xerostomia?

When drugs cause xerostomia

18

Explain the changes to the Stephan curve for a xerostomic patient

pH levels will rise back to 7 at a much slower rate

19

What is the modern day approach to cariology?

- Minimally invasive
- Therapeutic rather than surgical
- Treatment of Caries and Erosion with Drugs based on Salivary Proteins
- Molecular Dentistry