Endocrine: 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Endocrine: 2 Deck (17):
1

glycosylated hemoglobin (hbA1c): blood test; gives an average of what your blood sugar has been over the past ____

3 months

2

illness= think (diabetes)

DKA

3

should you aspirate insulin?

NO , to reduce the trauma of the skin

4

insulin infusion pump:
-only ____insulin is used in infusion pump.

alternate to insulin injections
rapid acting

5

____ is the only insulin that can be given in IV fluid as an intravenous infusion.

____ is the only insulin that can be given via SQ insulin infusion pump. insulin infusion pump are small computerized device worn by the client that provide both a ____ dosing of rapid-acting insulin and on-demand (bolud) dosing.

regular insulin

rapid acting insulin

continuous

6

s/s of hypoglycemia

cool
clamy
confusion
HA
nervous
increase pulse
shaky
nausea

7

if hypogylcemic, what should client do?
glucose absorbtion is delayed in food with lots of __.
once the blood sugar is up, what should they do?

eat simple sugar
fat
eat complex carb and protein

8

what is important about d5w?

hard to push, if you have a choice you need a large bore IV

9

for prevention of hypoglycemia, teach the client to

eat
take insulin regular
know sign of hypoglycemia
check blood sugar regularly

10

hypoglycemia is a glucose level of ____

70 or less

11

diabetic ketoacidosis:

anything that increases blood sugar can throw a client into DKA (illness, infection, skipping insulin)
-DKA may be the first sign of type 1
-have all the usual s/s of type 1
-patho: absent or inadequate insulin--blood sugar goes sky high--polyuria,polydipsia,polyphagia-- fat breakdown(acidosis)--kussmaul's respiration (trying to blow off co2 to compensate for the met. acidosis), also, as the client becomes more acidotic, the LOC does DOWN!

12

treatment for DKA

-find the cause
-hourly blood sugar and potassium level
-IV insulin (insulin decreases glucose and potassium by driving them out of the vascular space into the cell)
-ECG
-ABGs
-IVFs--start with NS.. then when the blood sugar gets down to about 300, switch to d5w to prevent throwing the client into hypoglycemia
-anticipate that the physician will want to add potassium to the iv solution at some point

13

HHNK or HHS is...

Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketosis or hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state

-looks like dka, but no acidosis
-making just enough insulin so they are not breaking down fat. no fat breakdown...no acidosis, no ketones...no acidosis
-no fruity breath odor
-no kussmauls respirations

14

DKA happens in ___ whereas HHNK (HHS) happens in ___.

type 1
type 2

15

DKA and HHNK are both hyperosmolar state caused by ____ and ____, but there is no ____ with HHNK.

hyperglycemia
dehydration
acidosis

16

what is gastroparesis?

stomach empyting is delayed so there is an increased risk for aspiration

17

what is the complications of diabetes?

DKA
HHNK (HHS)
vascular problems
neuropathy
increased risk for infection