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Flashcards in Fluid and Electrolytes : 1 Deck (50):
1

Fluid volume excess/ hypervolemia: too much fluid in the ______.

vascular space

2

What are the hormonal regulation of fluid volume?

aldosterone
ANP
ADH

3

where is aldosterone found?
what is its normal action?

adrenal gland (on top of the kidneys)

when the blood volume gets low, aldosterone secretions increase.
RETAIN SODIUM AND WATER, blood volume goes up

4

Diseases with too much aldosterone?

cushings syndrome
heperaldosteronism (conn's syndrome)

5

Diseases with too little aldosterone?

addison's disease

6

ANP (Atrial natriuretic peptide) is found?
What is its normal action?

atrium of the heart

it works the opposite of aldosterone

it causes EXCRETION OF SODIUM AND WATER

7

"ADH , _____."

h2O

8

ADH normally makes you retain or release?

retain; WATER ONLY

9

Too much ADH

SIADH (Retain water, fluid volume excess)
[TOO many letter, TOO much water]

urine is (decreased) concentrated, blood is low (dilute)

10

Not enough ADH

Diabetes Insipidus (lose water, fluid volume deficit)
D---Diuresis (shock)

Urine is dilute and blood is concentrated.

11

Concentrated makes numbers go UP

Dilute makes numbers go DOWN

For what lab values?

Urine specific gravity

sodium

hemocrit

12

ADH is found in the _____.
What makes you think of ADH problems?

pituitary gland (attached to the base of the brain)

craniotomy, head injury, sinus surgery, any condition that can lead to an increase ICP can lead to an ADH problem

13

What is the name for ADH hormone medication?

Vasopressin (Pitressin)
or
desmopressin acetate (DDAVP)
*these may be utilized as an ADH replacement in DI.

14

Lung sounds are __ with hypervolemia?

wet
will hear low in the bases first

15

Fluid retention think ______ first!!

heart problems**

16

Loop diuretic ?

furosemide (laxis)

17

potassium sparing diuretic?

spironolactone

18

Bed rest induces _____ by the release of ____ and decrease the production of ____.

diuresis
ANP
ADH

19

bedrest patient, where do you look for edema?

SACRUM! (gravity)
also, think about skin breakdown

20

Fluid volume deficit/ hypovolemia: ___

BIG TIME DEFICIT =SHOCK
loss of fluid anywhere
examples- thoracentesis, paracentesis, vomitting, diarrhea, and hemorrhage

21

What is third spacing?

when can this happen?

when the fluid is in a space that does you NO good. which can happen with burns and ascites

22

with ascites, what would you key into?

measure abdominal girth daily

(fluid in the peritoneal cavity- think cirrhosis)

23

replace volume:
mild deficit, ____
severe deficit ____

mild- PO fluid
severe- IV fluid

24

what causes fluid volume excess in heart failure?

heart is WEAK, cardiac output goes DOWN, DECREASED kidney perfusion, urinary output goes DOWN.

The volume stays in the VASCULAR SPACE.

25

what are 3 things with alot of sodium that could cause fluid volumes excess?

1. effervescent sodium medications (alka seltzer)
2. canned/processed foods
3. IVF with sodium

26

Aldosterone is a ______!!

STEROID& mineralcorticoid

27

Normal CVP value?

2-6mmHG

28

What are the s/s of fluid volume excess?

-distended neck veins/peripheral veins (veins are FULL)
-peripheral edema/ third space (veins cant hold anymore so they start to LEAK
-CVP goes UP (more volume, more pressure)
-lung sounds; WET
-polyuria (kidneys are trying to help you diurese)
-pulse UP (your heart only want the fluid to go forward!) IF the fluid cant go forward, its going to go backwards into the lungs. can lead to heart failure, then pulmonary edema.
-BP UP
- weight UP

29

what causes hypovolemia?

Loss of fluid anywhere
third spacing
diseases with polyuria (polyuria-oliguria-anuria)

30

s/s of hypovolemia?

-weight goes DOWN
-decreased skin turgor
-dry mucous membranes
-decreased urine output (kidneys either arent being perfused or they are trying to hold on to fluid. (compensate))
-BP DOWN
-pulse UP (heart is trying to pump what little fluid it has)
-respirations UP
-CVP DOWN
-peripheral veins/ neck veins VASOCONSTRICT
-cool extremities
-urine specfic gravity UP


31

Define isotonic solution

"balance solution"
goes into VASCULAR SPACE and stays there
increases BP

32

example for isotonic solution

NS
LR
D5W
D51/4NS

33

the uses for isotonic solution?

the client that has lost fluids through nausea, vomiting, burns, sweating and trauma.

34

______ is the basic solution when administering blood

NORMAL SALINE

35

DO NOT use isotonic solution in clients with ?

hypertension
cardiac disease
renal failure
(stays in vascular so causes high bp)

36

isotonic solutions can cause ?

FVE, HTN, hypernatremia ( only when the solution contains sodium)

37

define hypotonic solution

goes into VASCULAR SPACE and then SHIFTS out into the cells to replace cellular fluid

38

hypotonic solution rehydrate and DO NOT CAUSE ____.

hypertension

39

Examples of hypotonic solution

d2.5w
1/2NS
0.33%NS

40

the uses for hypotonic solution

the client who has HTN, renal or cardiac disease and needs fluid replacement bc of nausea, vomiting, burns hemorrhage, etc.

also used for dilution when a client has hypernatremia and for cellular dehydration

41

what should you watch for with hypotonic solution?

cellular edema because this fluid is moving out to the cells, which could lead to fluid volume DEFICIT and decrease bp

42

Define hypertonic solutions

(packed with particles)
volume expanders that will draw fluid into the vascular space from the cell.

43

examples of hypertonic solutions

D10W
3% NS
5% NS
D5LR
D51/2NS
D5NS
TPN
Albumin

44

the uses of hypertonic solutions

the client with hyponatremia or a client who has shifted large amounts of vascular volume to a third space or has severe edema, burn or ascites.

-A hypertonic solution will return the fluid volume to the vascular space.

45

What should you watch for with hypertonic solutions?

fluid volume excess. monitor in an ICU setting with frequent monitoring of BP, Pulse, and CVP, especially if they are receiving 3%NS or 5%NS

watch for pulmonary edema

46

stay where I put It

Isotonic solutions

47

Enter the vessel

hypErtonic solutions

48

gO Out Of the vessel

hypOtonic solutions

49

fluid retention think....

HEART problems FIRST!!

50

polyuria think...

SHOCK