Flashcards in Fluid and Electrolytes 2 Deck (55):
Magnesium and Calcium act as _____
Magnesium is excreted by the ____ but it can be lost in other way such as ____/
NORMAL magnesium lab values
NORMAL calcium lab values
Calcium and _____ have inverse relationship!!
If you want to get mg and ca questions right, think ____ FIRST
causes of hypermagnesemia
S/S of hypermagnesemia
3. makes you vasodilate
Muscle tone- weak, flaccid
Pulse - Decrease
treatment for hypermagnesemia
-calcium gluconate (reverses resp. depression and arrthymias)
How is calcium gluconate administered?
IV push very slowly
(max rate 1.5-2ml/min)
causes for hypercalcemia
-hyperparathyroidism (TOO much PTH)
When your serum calcium gets low, PTH kicks in and pulls CA from the BONE and puts it in the blood; therefore, the serum calcium goes UP.
-thiazides (retain calcium)
-immobilization (you have to bear weight to keep CA in the bone)
S/S of hypercalcemia
-bones are brittle
-kidney stones (majority is made of calcium)
Treatment for hypercalcemia
-Fluids to prevent kidney stones
-Add phosphorus to diet
-Must have Vitamin D to use Ca.
-Calcitonin DECREASES serum Ca
Causes of hypomagnesemia
-diarrhea (lots of Mg in intestines)
-alcohol suppresses ADH & it hypertonic
**not eating, drinking
Causes of hypocalcemia
(NOT ENOUGH PTH for all of these)
s/s of hypo calcemia and hypomagnesemia
-Muscle tone= rigid and tight
-pt could have seizures
-swallowing problems (esophagus is a smooth muscle)
what is the chvosteks sign?
tap check (C is for cheek)
what is trousseaus sign?
pump up BP cuff. the hand will hyperflex
if you get a tremor, NOT NORMAL!
treatment for hypomagnesemia?
-give some mg
-check kidney function (before and during IV mg)
treatment of hypocalcemia?
-phosphate binder (sevelamer hydrochloride [renagel], calcium acetate [PhosLo]) (makes phos go DOWN, ca go UP)
What is important to do with IV calcium?
make sure patient is on heart monitor!
What do you do if your client reports flushing and sweating when you start IV Mg?
STOP THE INFUSION!
Why should you put a patient getting IV calcium on a heart monitor?
because it widens the QRS complex.
What are some foods that are high in magnesium?
sodium think ____.
normal sodium lab values
the sodium level in your blood is totally dependent on __.
how much WATER you have in your blood.
too much sodium; not enough water
causes of hypernatremia
s/s of hypernatremia
thirsty-already dehydrated by the time your thirsty
swollen tongue (when severe)
treatment for hypernatremia
-dilute client with fluids (diluting makes sodium go down)
- I & O
too much water; not enough sodium
causes of hyponatremia
-drinking water for fluid replacement
- psychogenic polydipsia ( loves to drink water)
- D5W (sugar and water)
-SIADH (retaining water)
s/s of hyponatremia
treatment for hyponatremia
-client needs sodium
-client doesnt need water
- if having neuro problems, need HYPERTONIC(packed with particles) saline. (3%NS or 5%NS)
with patient taking 3%NS or 5% NS, _____.
They will be in an ICU setting!
Feeding tube patient tend to get ____.
normal potassium lab value
3.5 - 5.0
potassium is excreted by ___
if the kidneys arent working well, the serum potassium level will go ____ .
causes of hyperkalemia
-spironolactone (makes you retain potassium)
s/s of hyperkalemia
-begins with muscle twitching
-then proceeds to weakness
-then flaccid paralysis
treatment for hyperkalemia
-dialysis; kidneys arent working
-calcium gluconate (decreases arrhythmias)
-glucose and insulin (insulin carries glucose and potassium into the cell)
-sodium polystyrene sulfonate
Sodium and potassium are ____.
anytime you give IV insulin, worry about ____.
hypoglycemia and hypokalemia
causes of hypokalemia
-NG suction (we have lots of potassium in our stomach)
s/s of hypokalemia
life-threatening arrhythmias can happen with __.
HYPO and HYPER kalemia
treatment for hypokalemia
-spironolactone (makes pt retain potassium)
-eat more potassium
major problem with oral potassium is?
what should you assess before and during IV potassium?
always put IV potassium on ___.
never give IV potassium ___.
does IV potassium burn during infusion?
use large bore catheter.