Flashcards in Endocrine Deck (158)
Wheezing (asthma symptoms) + diarrhea + facial flushing + mass lesion in appendix area: Diagnosis? Treatment?
--> ultimate treatment = surgery
--> symptomatic treatment = Octreotide (long-acting somatostatin analog)
Most common adrenal medulla tumor in adults? kids?
adults--> pheochromocytoma (causes HTN)
kids--> neuroblastoma (does not cause HTN)
Aldosterone is secreted from?
zona glomerulosa of adrenal cortex
--> stimulated by Renin-angiotensin
Cortisol (and some sex hormones) secreted from?
zona fasciculata of adrenal cortex
--> stimulated by ACTH, hypothalamic CRH
Androgens (sex hormones) are secreted from?
zona reticularis of adrenal cortex
--> stimulated by ACTH, hypothalamic CRH
Catecholamines are secreted from?
chromaffin cells of adrenal medulla (neural crest derivative!)
-->stimulated by preganglionic sympathetic fibers
Adrenal gland drainage: Left adrenal? Right adrenal?
Left adrenal --> L adrenal vein --> L renal vein --> IVC
Right adrenal --> R adrenal vein --> IVC
(same as left and right gonadal veins!)
neurohypophysis (post pit) is derived from? adenohypophysis (ant pit)?
-neurohypophysis = neuroectoderm derivative
-adenohypophysis = surface ectoderm derivative (from Rathke's pouch)!
Rathke's pouch gives rise to?
Adenohypophysis (ant pit)!
--> Rathke's pouch = oral ectoderm
hormones secreted from posterior pituitary?
*made in hypothalamus, then shipped to post pituitary
hormones from anterior pituitary?
-which are acidophils?
*Acidophils: GH, Prolactin
*Basophils = "B-FLAT" = FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH
alpha- vs beta-subunit of pituitary hormones:
-alpha = common to TSH, LH, FSH, hCG
-beta = determines hormone specificity; different in all of them!
Hormones produced by alpha, beta, and delta cells of Islets of Langerhans in pancreas?
alpha cells --> glucagon (peripheral)
beta cells --> insulin (central)
delta cells --> somatostatin (interspersed)
*note: somatostatin is also produced by delta cells in gastric mucosa and throughout gut
*insulin inhibits glucagon release by alpha cells!
Does insulin cross the placenta?
Effects on insulin release of:
Cell types that don't need insulin for glucose uptake?
*tissues with GLUT-1 receptors take up glucose regardless of insulin levels
-beta islet cells
*Requires insulin to be activated!
Anabolic effects of insulin (X6)
1) increases glucose transport into adipose and skeletal muscle
2) increases glycogen synthesis and storage
3) increases TG synthesis and storage
4) increases Na retention in kidneys
5) increases protein synthesis in muscles
6) increases cellular uptake of K and AAs
-secreted in response to?
-secreted by alpha cells of islets of pancreas
-secreted in response to hypoglycemia
-inhibited by: insulin, hyperglycemia, somatostatin
-->lipolysis and ketone production
-->increases glucose production/release so in effect also increases insulin release
-->inhibits prolactin secretion; so, can be used to treat prolactinomas
Drug types that stimulate prolactin secretion?
-Dopamine antagonists (most antipsychotics)
-Estrogens (OCPs, Pregnancy)
Why is a side effect of anti-psychotic drugs galactorrhea?
-anti-psychotics are dopamine antagonists
-dopamine inhibits prolactin; if decrease dopamine, then increase prolactin
-prolactin stimulate milk production!
-stimulates milk production in breast
-inhibits GnRH --> so decreases LH and FSH --> so inhibits ovulation in females, spermatogenesis in males
Somatotropin = Growth Hormone:
-when is their increased secretion?
-released in pulses in response to GHRH from hypothalamus
-increased secretion during exercise and sleep
-secretion inhibited by glucose and somatostatin
-increased MCs (aldosterone)
-decreased GCs (cortisol) and androgens
--->XY: decreased DHT --> pseudohermaphroditism (looks female, but no internal reproductive structures b/c of mullerian inhibiting factor)
-->XX: looks female, has normal internal sex organs, but lacks secondary sex characteristics)
phenotypic female who lacks internal reproductive structures; has HTN and hypokalemia
-->XY pseudohermaphrodite, but decreased DHT; no internal organs b/c of MIF
phenotypic female with normal internal sex organs, but lacks secondary sex characteristics; has HTN and hypokalemia
-XX with 17-alpha-hydroxylase deficiency