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Flashcards in Endocrine Deck (158)
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1

Wheezing (asthma symptoms) + diarrhea + facial flushing + mass lesion in appendix area: Diagnosis? Treatment?

Carcinoid syndrome
--> ultimate treatment = surgery
--> symptomatic treatment = Octreotide (long-acting somatostatin analog)

2

Most common adrenal medulla tumor in adults? kids?

adults--> pheochromocytoma (causes HTN)
kids--> neuroblastoma (does not cause HTN)

3

Aldosterone is secreted from?

zona glomerulosa of adrenal cortex
--> "salt"
--> stimulated by Renin-angiotensin

4

Cortisol (and some sex hormones) secreted from?

zona fasciculata of adrenal cortex
--> "sugar"
--> stimulated by ACTH, hypothalamic CRH

5

Androgens (sex hormones) are secreted from?

zona reticularis of adrenal cortex
--> "sex"
--> stimulated by ACTH, hypothalamic CRH

6

Catecholamines are secreted from?

chromaffin cells of adrenal medulla (neural crest derivative!)
-->stimulated by preganglionic sympathetic fibers

7

Adrenal gland drainage: Left adrenal? Right adrenal?

Left adrenal --> L adrenal vein --> L renal vein --> IVC

Right adrenal --> R adrenal vein --> IVC

(same as left and right gonadal veins!)

8

neurohypophysis (post pit) is derived from? adenohypophysis (ant pit)?

-neurohypophysis = neuroectoderm derivative
-adenohypophysis = surface ectoderm derivative (from Rathke's pouch)!

9

Rathke's pouch gives rise to?

Adenohypophysis (ant pit)!
--> Rathke's pouch = oral ectoderm

10

hormones secreted from posterior pituitary?

-ADH
-Oxytocin

*made in hypothalamus, then shipped to post pituitary

11

hormones from anterior pituitary?
-which are acidophils?
-basophils?

"FLAT PiG"
-FSH
-LH
-ACTH
-TSH
-Prolactin
-GH

*Acidophils: GH, Prolactin
*Basophils = "B-FLAT" = FSH, LH, ACTH, TSH

12

alpha- vs beta-subunit of pituitary hormones:

-alpha = common to TSH, LH, FSH, hCG
-beta = determines hormone specificity; different in all of them!

13

Hormones produced by alpha, beta, and delta cells of Islets of Langerhans in pancreas?

alpha cells --> glucagon (peripheral)
beta cells --> insulin (central)
delta cells --> somatostatin (interspersed)

*note: somatostatin is also produced by delta cells in gastric mucosa and throughout gut
*insulin inhibits glucagon release by alpha cells!

14

Does insulin cross the placenta?

nope!

15

Effects on insulin release of:
-GH
-somatostatin
-Beta-agonists
-alpha-agonists

GH-->increase insulin
Somatostatin-->decreases insulin
Beta-agonists-->stimulate insulin
Alpha-agonists-->inhibit insulin

16

Cell types that don't need insulin for glucose uptake?

"BRICK L"
-Brain
-RBCs
-Intestine
-Cornea
-Kidney
-Liver

17

GLUT-1

-RBCs
-Brain

*tissues with GLUT-1 receptors take up glucose regardless of insulin levels

18

GLUT-2

-beta islet cells
-liver
-kidney
-small intestine

19

GLUT-4

*Requires insulin to be activated!
-Adipose tissue
-Skeletal muscle

20

Anabolic effects of insulin (X6)

1) increases glucose transport into adipose and skeletal muscle
2) increases glycogen synthesis and storage
3) increases TG synthesis and storage
4) increases Na retention in kidneys
5) increases protein synthesis in muscles
6) increases cellular uptake of K and AAs

21

Glucagon:
-secreted by?
-secreted in response to?
-inhibited by?
-effects?

-secreted by alpha cells of islets of pancreas
-secreted in response to hypoglycemia
-inhibited by: insulin, hyperglycemia, somatostatin
-effects:
-->glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis
-->lipolysis and ketone production
-->increases glucose production/release so in effect also increases insulin release

22

Bromocriptin

dopamine agonist
-->inhibits prolactin secretion; so, can be used to treat prolactinomas

23

Drug types that stimulate prolactin secretion?

-Dopamine antagonists (most antipsychotics)
-Estrogens (OCPs, Pregnancy)

24

Why is a side effect of anti-psychotic drugs galactorrhea?

-anti-psychotics are dopamine antagonists
-dopamine inhibits prolactin; if decrease dopamine, then increase prolactin
-prolactin stimulate milk production!

25

Prolactin functions:

-stimulates milk production in breast
-inhibits GnRH --> so decreases LH and FSH --> so inhibits ovulation in females, spermatogenesis in males

26

Somatotropin = Growth Hormone:
-stimulated by?
-inhibited by?
-when is their increased secretion?

-released in pulses in response to GHRH from hypothalamus
-increased secretion during exercise and sleep
-secretion inhibited by glucose and somatostatin

27

17-alpha-hydroxylase deficiency:
-what's increased/decreased?
-symptoms

-increased MCs (aldosterone)
-decreased GCs (cortisol) and androgens
-symptoms:
-->Hypertension
-->Hypokalemia
--->XY: decreased DHT --> pseudohermaphroditism (looks female, but no internal reproductive structures b/c of mullerian inhibiting factor)
-->XX: looks female, has normal internal sex organs, but lacks secondary sex characteristics)

28

phenotypic female who lacks internal reproductive structures; has HTN and hypokalemia

17-alpha-hydroxylase deficiency
-->XY pseudohermaphrodite, but decreased DHT; no internal organs b/c of MIF

29

phenotypic female with normal internal sex organs, but lacks secondary sex characteristics; has HTN and hypokalemia

-XX with 17-alpha-hydroxylase deficiency

30

21-hydroxylase deficiency:
-what's increased/decreased?
-symptoms?

-increased androgens
-decreased MCs (aldosterone) and GCs (cortisol)
-symptoms:
-->masculinization (female pseudohermaphrodite)
-->hypOtension
-->hyperkalemia
-->increased renin activity

***this is the most common form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia