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Flashcards in Reproductive Deck (158)
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1

Venous drainage of Left and Right Ovaries/Testes:

Left Ovary/Testis --> L gonadal vein --> L renal vein --> IVC

R ovary/testis --> R gonadal vein --> IVC

***this is the same as with the adrenals: Left adrenal drains to L renal vein before draining into IVC (but, Right adrenal drains into Right adrenal vein, which drains straight into IVC)

2

Lymphatic drainage of Ovaries/Testes:

Para-aortic lymph nodes

3

Lymphatic drainage of distal 1/3 of vagina, vulva, scrotum:

superficial inguinal nodes

4

Lymphatic drainage of proximal 2/3 of vagina, uterus

Obturator, external iliac, and hypogastric nodes

5

On which side is a varicocele more common to occur? Why?

Varicoceles are more common on the the left; b/c flow is less continuous on the left (left testis --> left spermatic vein --> left renal vein --> IVC)

6

Cell type in the Ovaries:

Simple cuboidal epithelium

7

Cell type in Fallopian Tubes?

Simple columnar epithelium
--> Ciliated!

8

Cell type in Uterus?

Simple columnar epithelium
-->pseduostratified, tubular glands

9

Cell type in Endocervix? Ectocervix?

*Endocervix--> Simple columnar epithelium
*Ectocervix --> Stratified squamous epithelium

10

Cell type in Vagina:

stratified squamous epithelium
-->non-keratinized

11

Which female reproductive ligament is a derivative of the gubernaculum?

Round ligament of uterus
-->connects uterine fundus to labia majora
-->does not contain any structures!
-->Travels through the round inguinal canal
-->Gubernaculum involved in descent of ovaries/testes during development

12

Pathway of sperm during ejaculation:

"SEVEN UP"
*Seminiferous tubules --> Epididymis --> Vas deferens --> Ejaculatory ducts --> (Nothing) --> Urethra --> Penis

13

Which nerve is involved in male Erection? Emission? Ejaculation?

*First: Point and Shoot (Erection = PSNS; Emission = SNS)

*Nerves involved:
-Erection --> pelvic nerve (PSNS)
-Emission --> hypogastric nerve (SNS)
-Ejaculation --> pudendal nerve (visceral and somatic nerves)


*Emission = sperm and seminal fluid travel from scrotum into prostatic urethra
*Ejaculation = from prostatic urethra to outside world

14

Sildenafil and Vardenafil mechanism:

--> both inhibit cGMP breakdown. So: increased amounts of cGMP --> smooth muscle relaxation --> vasodilation --> proerectile

*NO also stimulates increased cGMP
*This is in opposed to Norepinephrine:
NE-->increases intracellular Calcium --> smooth muscle contraction --> vasoconstriction --> antierectile

15

What type of cell produce primary spermatocytes? Where are these cells located?

-->Spermatogonia = Germ cells --> produce primary spermatocytes
-->line seminiferous tubules

16

Sertoli cells:
-Where are they located?
-Functions?

-->line seminiferous tubules
-->overall: support sperm synthesis
*Functions:
-secrete inhibin (inhibits FSH)
-secrete ABP (Androgen-Binding Protein)
-produce anti-mullerian hormone (mullerian-inhibiting factor)
-form blood-testis barrier (tight jxns b/w adjacent Sertoli cells)
-support and nourish developing spermatozoa
-regulate spermatogenesis


***note: sertoli cells are temperature sensitive: if increase temperature (like with a varicocele or cryptochordism (undescended testes)) --> get decreased sperm production and decreased inhibin

17

Leydig cells:
-Where are they located?
-Functions?

-Located in interstitium of seminiferous tubules
*Functions:
-secrete Testosterone!
--> this is unaffected by temperature! (unlike Sertoli cells, which are affected by temperature)

18

Where does spermatogenesis occur? When does it occur?

--> occurs in seminiferous tubules
--> begins at puberty

19

Spermiogenesis:

part of spermatogenesis: spermatids loss cytoplasmic contents, gain acrosomal cap to form mature spermatozoon

20

Testosterone vs DHT (Dihydrotestosterone) vs Androstenedione:

Potency: DHT > Testosterone > Androstenedione

*DHT and Testosterone are produced in testes:
Testosterone --> DHT (by 5-alpha-reductase)
*Androstenedione is produced in adrenals

***both Testosterone and Androstenedione are converted to Estrogen in adipose tissue and Sertoli cells by Aromatase!

21

Testosterone is involved in the differentiation of all internal genitalia, except?

--> Testosterone is NOT involved in differentiation of prostate!
--> DHT is! (DHT is also involved in differentiation of penis and scrotum --> external genitalia)

22

Which forms of Androgens are converted to Estrogen?

Testosterone and Androstenedione

23

17-beta-estradiol

Form of estrogen that is formed in the ovaries
-->predominant form of estrogen during reproductive years

24

Estriol

-->form of estrogen that is formed in placenta
-->predominant type of estrogen in serum during pregnancy

25

Estrone

-->form of estrogen formed in blood via aromatization
--> predominant form of estrogen during menopause

26

Which form of estrogen is most potent?

Highest potency: Estradiol > Estrione > Estriol

27

Affect of estrogen on Prolactin?

Estrogen stimulated prolactin secretion, BUT it inhibits prolactin's action on the breast! (so, don't give OCPs to breast-feeding women!)

28

Where on cell are estrogen receptors found?

-->receptors are in nucleus; translocate to nucleus when bound by ligand (cytosolic steroid receptor)

29

Effect of estrogen on HDL and LDL?

*increased HDL, decreases LDL!

30

Theca cells:

Stimulated by LH
*convert cholesterol --> Androstenedione, by the enzyme desmolase (17-alpha-hydroxylase!)