Endocrine System-2 Flashcards Preview

Anatomy and Phisiology > Endocrine System-2 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endocrine System-2 Deck (25):
1

The cortex releases some 2 dozen steroid hormones collectively called

Corticosteroids

2

The adrenal medulla is

Derived from embryonic nervous tissue and contains sympathetic nerve fibers

3

What is under control of the sympathetic nervous system

Adrenal medulla

4

The sympathetic nervous system...

Results in secretion of norepinephrine and epinephrine from the adrenal medulla

5

What does the zona glomerulosa release

Aldosterone

6

The release of aldosterone is controlled by the...

Kidneys renin-angiotensin system

7

The Renin-Angiotensin system is activated when...

Blood pressure drops or when NA+ levels in the blood drop

8

What is aldosterone’s main target organ and what is it’s main effect?

Kidney; to increase sodium and water absorption and increase K+ excretion

9

What is under control of the anterior pituitary?

Zona fasciculata

10

CRF=
ACTH=

Corticotropin releasing factor

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

11

What is released throughout a normal person’s day?

Cortisol

12

When are cortisol levels the highest/lowest?

Highest-in the morning
Lowest- throughout the day

13

Cortisol...

-released in circadian rhythm
-increases blood sugar levels
-releases a lot when stressed

14

What are characteristics of acute major depression and other forms of chronic stress?

Dysfunction of the HPA axis (hypothalamic pituitary adrenal) with elevated plasma cortisol levels

15

What does cortisol do to the body?

-Cortisol raises blood sugar levels by stimulating the conversion of FA and AA to glucose

-Cortisol raises blood glucose levels by stimulating breakdown of glycogen in liver

-cortisol has a vasoconstriction effect

- cortisol has an anti-inflammatory effect

16

Cushing’s disease (hypersecretion of cortisol)

Causes:
1) pituitary tumor
2) adrenal tumor
3) large doses of glucocorticoid drugs

Symptoms:
-hyperglycemia (steroid diabetes)
- round face
-fat deposition around midline
- weak bones and thinning muscles
- water and salt retention (hypertension)

17

Addison’s disease (hyposecretion)

Hyposecretion of hormones from adrenal cortex. Affects both aldosterone and cortisol

Symptoms
-weight loss
-low NA+ and glucose levels in blood
-high K+ levels in blood
-weakness or fatigue
-severe dehydration and hypotension
-salt craving

18

Addison’s disease may be caused by...

1) the immune system mistakenly attacking the adrenal gland (autoimmune disease)

2) infections (such as tuberculosis, HIV, fungal)

3) tumors

19

What is used to treat Addison’s disease

Corticosteroid replacement therapy

20

What is the main androgen secreted by the adrenal gland?

Testosterone

21

Target tissues...

Contain an enzyme called aromatase which converts some testosterone to estrogen

22

Aromatase

This enzyme becomes important when females are diagnosed with estrogen receptor and breast cancer

23

What is the function of estrogen and testosterone from the adrenal?

Sex hormones promote bone growth and to maintain muscle mass in both males and females

24

Pineal gland is involved in what

Awake/sleep cycles

25

What hormone does the pineal gland secrete

Melatonin