Flashcards in Endocrine System-3 Deck (14):
- islets of langerhans
- hormones insulin and glucagon
- 1% or pancreas
- pancreatic acini cells
- enzymes for digestion (pancreatic amylase for example)
- 99% of pancreas
What cells make glucagon and what does it to do blood sugar levels?
Glucagon raises blood sugar levels by breaking down glycogen in the liver
What cells make insulin and what do they do for blood sugar levels?
Lowers blood sugar levels by
1) increasing glucose uptake by tissues all over the body
2) increasing glycogen synthesis by liver and skeletal muscle
What is the function of insulin
To get glucose into cells
Where do most of the cells of the body have insulin receptors?
The membrane surface
Cells that have receptors are called
Insulin dependent cells
What are insulin independent cells and give some examples
They are cells that lack receptors
GIT tract cells
What is type I diabetes called?
Type I- insulin dependent diabetes
Loss of beta cells in pancreas leading to decreased production of insulin
Most cases are caused to an autoimmune disorder (immune system attacks beta cells)
Treatment: insulin shots or pump
What is type II diabetes?
Type II- non-insulin dependent
Insulin receptors do not respond to insulin secreted by pancreas
Treatment: diet change, weight loss, medications
90% of all cases in the USA are type II
What is gestational diabetes?
Most often resembles type II diabetes
Occurs in 2-5% of all pregnancies
Usually disappears after delivery
Treatment: diet changes, medications
Symptoms of diabetes
1) high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia)
2) glucose in urine (gluconuria)
3) frequent urination (polyuria)
4) frequent thirst (polydipsia)
5) hunger (polyphagia)
6) weight loss
What happens when diabetes is NOT treated and blood sugar levels remain high?
-The pH of blood becomes more acidic as the body cannot use glucose for a fuel and blood fatty acid levels increase
-abnormal blood vessels/aneurysm and hemorrhage of blood vessels in the back of the eye
-diabetic ulcers develop when poor circulation increases healing time
-pieces of plaque can break free, travel to the brain and block blood vessels that supply blood to the brain