Endocrine System-3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Endocrine System-3 Deck (14):

Endocrine function

- islets of langerhans

- hormones insulin and glucagon

- 1% or pancreas


Exocrine function

- pancreatic acini cells

- enzymes for digestion (pancreatic amylase for example)

- 99% of pancreas


What cells make glucagon and what does it to do blood sugar levels?

Alpha cells

Glucagon raises blood sugar levels by breaking down glycogen in the liver


What cells make insulin and what do they do for blood sugar levels?

Beta cells

Lowers blood sugar levels by
1) increasing glucose uptake by tissues all over the body

2) increasing glycogen synthesis by liver and skeletal muscle


What is the function of insulin

To get glucose into cells


Where do most of the cells of the body have insulin receptors?

The membrane surface


Cells that have receptors are called

Insulin dependent cells


What are insulin independent cells and give some examples

They are cells that lack receptors

GIT tract cells


What is type I diabetes called?

Type I- insulin dependent diabetes

Loss of beta cells in pancreas leading to decreased production of insulin

Most cases are caused to an autoimmune disorder (immune system attacks beta cells)

Treatment: insulin shots or pump


What is type II diabetes?

Type II- non-insulin dependent

Insulin receptors do not respond to insulin secreted by pancreas

Treatment: diet change, weight loss, medications

90% of all cases in the USA are type II


What is gestational diabetes?

Most often resembles type II diabetes

Occurs in 2-5% of all pregnancies

Usually disappears after delivery

Treatment: diet changes, medications


Symptoms of diabetes

1) high blood sugar levels (hyperglycemia)

2) glucose in urine (gluconuria)

3) frequent urination (polyuria)

4) frequent thirst (polydipsia)

5) hunger (polyphagia)

6) weight loss


What happens when diabetes is NOT treated and blood sugar levels remain high?

-The pH of blood becomes more acidic as the body cannot use glucose for a fuel and blood fatty acid levels increase

-abnormal blood vessels/aneurysm and hemorrhage of blood vessels in the back of the eye

-diabetic neuropathy

-diabetic ulcers develop when poor circulation increases healing time

-pieces of plaque can break free, travel to the brain and block blood vessels that supply blood to the brain


What does metabolic acidosis lead to