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Vet Microanatomy 1 > Endocrine System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endocrine System Deck (75):
1

What are the primary organs of the endocrine system?

Pituitary gland, hypophysis cerebri
Pineal gland, epiphysis cerebri
Thyroid gland
Parathyroid gland
Adrenal glands
Hypothalamus

2

What are the secondary endocrine organs?

pacreas, Testes, Ovaries, Kidneys, Stomach, Intestines, Thymus, Heart, Placenta, Adipose Tissue

3

What are the functions of the endocrine system?

- growth and development
- Internal environment
- Energy production, storage, and utilization
- Reproduction

4

What are the characteristics of the endocrine organs?

- Epithelial origin
- ductless
- highly vascular
- control or effect mediated by hormones

5

What is autocrine signalling?

extracellular signal produced by the cell binds to receptors on ITSELF (target sites on same cell)

6

What is paracrine signalling?

extracellular signal produced by the cell bind to receptors sites on adjacent cells.

7

What is endocrine signalling?

hormone is secreted into the blood stream by a cell and is then carried via the blood to distant target cells

8

What can a hormone be? (What are they made of?)

Proteins eg: insulin, glycoproteins, polypeptides
Amino acids eg: T3, T4, catecholamines
Steroids eg: testosterone, estrogen, progesterone

9

How do hormones travel?

Through the bloodstream to target cells

10

How do most hormones bind to target cells?

Bind to receptors on the surface of the target cell

11

How do steroid hormones act on the target cell?

They pass through the plasma membrane of the target cell and bind to the nucleus

12

What kind of response does a hormone typically give?

Slow sustained responses

13

What is the hypothalamus?

Portion of the brain that links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland/hypophysis

14

What do hypothalamic nuclei do?

Control distant cells via hormones through two pathways
- Production of releasing hormones - released into "portal system" to target cells in the adenohypophysis
- hormones axon ally transported and stored in the neurohypophysis, then released in the blood to target distant sites

15

What is another name for the pituitary gland?

The hypophysis cerebri

16

What is another name for the posterior pituitary?

Neurohypophysis

17

What is another name for the anterior pituitary?

Adenohypophysis

18

What are the developmental origins of the pituitary gland?

Posterior pituitary/Neurohypophysis = neuronectoderm ( from diencephalon)
Anterior pituitary/Adenohypophysis = epithelial (from roof of pharynx)

19

What are the three portions of the Neurohypophysis?

Pars nervosa (pars posterior)
Infundibular stalk (infundibulum)
Eminentia mediana - small attachment between the hypophysis and infundibulum

20

What are the three parts of the adenohypophysis?

Pars tube rails
Pars intermedia
Pars distalis

21

What do the cell bodies of large neurons found in hypothalamus nuclei produce?

Anti diuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin

22

What are herring bodies?

Swellings along the hypothalamic neurons which are the site in which hormones are accumulated.
- storage site for ADH and oxytocin

23

Where are herring bodies found?

Neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary gland) pars nervosa

24

What do the axons of the neurohypophysis pars nervosa terminate on?

vessels

25

Which nucleus is associated with ADH?

supraoptic nucleus (SON)

26

which nucleus is associated with oxytocin?

Paraventricular nucleus (PVN)

27

What does Antidiuretic hormone do (ADH)

Increases water reabsorption and concentrates urine in the kidneys

28

What does oxyotcin do?

stimulates contraction of myoepithelial cells for milk let down/release

29

Which part of the pituitary gland is the glandular part?

the adenohypophysis

30

What does the adenohypophysis require to work?

a releasing hormone from the hypothalamus

31

What is the biggest part of the adenohypophysis? What does it do?

the pars distalis -> secretes the majority of hormones

32

The pars intermedia is a source of what?

melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)

33

What are the acidophils of the adenohypophysis pars distalis? What do they produce?

- Somatotropes - growth hormone
- Mammotropes - prolactin

34

What are the basophils of the adenohypophysis pars distalis? What do they produce?

- Thyrotropes - Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
- Gonadotropes (Sigma(?)1 basophils)- Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
- Gonadotropes (sigma(?)2 basophils) - Luteinizing hormone (LH)
- Adrenocorticotropes - ACTH

35

What secretion from the hypothalamus stimulates the release of FSH and LH?

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone

36

What do neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus do?

produce releasing hormones into portal vessels

37

Where do releasing hormones secreted by the neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus go and what do they do?

they travel to the adenohypophysis (especially pars distalis) where they stimulate acidophils or basophils to produce another hormone

38

What is the chief target cell of growth hormone? What hormone is then released by this organ?

All cells, Hepatocytes

Hepatocytes release insulinlike growth factor I (IGF-I)

39

What is the chief target cell of Prolactin?

mammary duct/alveolar epitheliocyte (mammary glands and testes)

40

What is the chief target cell of Thyroid stimulating hormone? What hormone is then released by this organ?

Thyroid follicular epitheliocyte
Releases: triiodothyronine (T3) and tetraiodothyronine (T4)

41

What is the chief target cell of FSH? What hormone is then released by this organ?

Ovarian follicular epitheliocyte Testicular seustentacular cell
Release: estrogen, inhibin, activin
(testes and ovaries)

42

What is the chief target cell of LH? What hormone is then released by this organ?

-corpus luteum epitheliocyte - Releases: progesterone
-ovarian internal thecal cell - Releases testosterone
-testicular interstitial cell - Releases testosterone
(testes and ovaries)

43

What is the chief target cell of Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)? What hormone is then released by this organ?

-Zona glomerulosa epitheliocyte - releases mineralocorticoid
-Zona fasciculata epitheliocyte - releases glucocorticoid
-Zona reticulans epitheliocyte - releases androgen
(Adrenal cortex)

44

What does the pars intermedia produce? What does it act on?

melanocyte stimulating hormone - acts on melanocytes in the epidermis

45

What are the nuclei of the adenohypophysis?

dorsal medial, ventral medial and infundibular nuclei

46

Where do the axons of the adenohypophysis synapse?

on vessels in the primary capillary plexus

47

What is the main function of the epiphysis?

regulate daily rhythms of bodily activity

48

What are the secretory cells of the epiphysis? What do they produce?

pinealocytes - produce the hormone melatonin

49

What do pinealocytes respond to?

respond to stimuli detected in the retina; darkness stimulates secretion of melatonin -> circadian 24 hr rhythm

50

What is melatonin exclusively involved in signalling?

the time of day and time of year

51

When is melatonin secreted? (mainly)

at night

52

What is melatonin?

an effective antioxidant which also has immune-enhancing and oncostatic properties

53

What is melatonin important in?

seasonal reproduction
- Long day breeders ( horses) when days get longer (late spring/summer/early fall)
- Short day breeders (sheep/goat/deer/etc) when days get shorter (fall)

54

What is another name for the pineal gland?

epiphysis cerebri

55

What is corpora arenacea?

brain sand -> pigment build up in the brain tissues (pineal gland) (blackish brown)

56

What do the follicles of the thyroid gland do?

- lining cells produce thyroglobulin
- stored in follicle lumen (colloid)
- Lining cells endocytose thyroglobulin and convert to active T3/T4 (thyroxine)

57

What does TSH regulate in the thyroid?

synthesis, iodination, proteolysis of thyroglobulin

58

What are C or clear cells also know as? What do they do?

also known as parafollicular cells.
- Secrete calcitonin in response to high blood calcium
- Main function is to lower serum calcium
- Targets bone and kidney

59

What does the parathyroid gland do?

secretes parathormone (PTH) into capillaries

60

What does parathormone (PTH) do?

- increases intestinal and renal Ca reabsorption
- Stimulates osteoclasts -> bone reabsorption

61

What are the two parts of the adrenal gland?

cortex and medulla (only seen in mammals)

62

what does the cortex portion of the adrenal gland do, what does it arise from?

secretes corticosteroids and arises from the mesoderm

63

What does the medulla of the adrenal gland do and what does it arise from?

secretes catecholamines and arises from the neural crest

64

What are the three parts of the cortex of the adrenal gland and what do they secrete?

-Zona glomerulosa - releases mineralocorticoids (Aldosterone)
-Zona fasciculata - releases glucocorticoids (Cortisol)
-Zona reticulans - releases weak androgen

65

From the outer adrenal gland to the medulla, what are the layers of the cortex in order?

Zona glomerulosa -> Zona fasciculata -> Zona reticularis

66

What is the name of special cells in the adrenal medulla? What do they do?

Chromaffin cells - secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine, stored in secretory granules
-These are columnar to cuboidal cells that do not have distinct vacuoles

67

What does low blood pressure/renin system activate in the adrenal gland? what does it do?

Angiotensin II (ACTH) - increases blood volume

68

Is ACTH involved in a negative or positive feedback loop?

negative

69

What are the main cells of the endocrine pancreas?

the islets of langerhan

70

What are the types of islets of langerhan cells and what do they secrete?

Alpha - glucagon, CCK, GIP
Beta - insulin, IAPP
Delta - somatostatin
Other - gastrin

71

What are the endocrine tissues of the gastrointestinal tract and what do they secrete?

- pyloric region of stomach - secretes gastrin
- enteroendocrine cells in epithelium mucosae of SI - secretes hormones such as CCK for gall bladder contraction
- Endocrine cells in SI - secrete secretin and gastric inhibitory polypeptide

72

What two hormones are produced by the kidneys?

renin and erythropoietin

73

What does renin do? What is it produced by?

produced by juxtaglomerular cells
- part of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS)
- involved in control of blood pressure

74

What does erythropoietin do? what is it?

- controls erythropoiesis ( RBC formation)
- It is a cytokine for RBC precursors

75

What do atrial myocardial cells secrete and what does it do?

secrete atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) which promotes Na+ and water loss, decreases blood pressure. (targets distal convoluted tubules of kidney)