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Flashcards in Nervous System Deck (126)
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1

What are the two major parts of the nervous system?

- Peripheral NS
- Central NS

2

What are the two parts of the peripheral nervous system?

- Autonomic
- Somatic NS

3

What are the two parts of the autonomic nervous system?

- Sympathetic NS
- Parasympathetic NS

4

What are the three parts/regions of the brain?

- Forebrain
- Midbrain
- Hindbrain

5

What are the two parts of the forebrain?

- telencephalon ( Cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, hippocampus, amygdala)
- Diencephalon (Thalamus, hypothalamus)

6

What are the two parts of the hindbrain?

- Metencephalon (Pons, Cerebellum)
- Myelencephalon (medulla)

7

What is found in the midbrain?

Mesencephalon (Tectum, tegmentum)

8

What are two types of nervous tissue?

- Neurons
- Neuroganglia

9

What are the types of neurons?

- pseudounipolar
- Bipolar
- Multipolar

10

What are the types of neuroglia in the CNS?

- astrocytes
- Oligodendroglia
- Microglia
- Ependyma

11

What are thetypes of neuroglia in the PNS?

- Schwann cells
- Satellite cells

12

What is grey matter?

parts of CNS rich in cell bodies but limited numbers of myelinated axons

13

What is white matter?

region rich in myelinated axons

14

What components of the CNS have ectodermal origins?

- neurons
- Astrocytes
- Oligodendrocytes

15

True or false? Components of the CNS that have ectodermal origins are sensitive to hypoxia

True

16

What components of the CNS have mesodermal origins?

- Microglia
- Vascular Endothelium

17

True or flase? Components of the CNS that have mesodermal origins are sensitive to hypoxia

False. They are not as sensitive to hypoxia as components with ectodermal origins

18

What is another name for the cell body of a neuron?

perikaryon

19

How are Neurons distributed?

- Individually
- in Layers
- In Ganglia (PNS)
- In Nuclei (CNS) (just like ganglia but in the CNS)

20

What are the structural characteristics of the Neuron Soma?

- Euchromatic nucleus with prominent nucleolus
- Basophilic cytoplasm = Nissl substance: RER and ribosomes
- They are long living cells

21

What is the wear and tear (age) pigment of neurons?

lipofuscin

22

What is neuropil?

everything surrounding neurons

23

What do the dendrites of a neuron do?

recieve stimuli at synapses

24

What do the axons of a neuron do?

transmit signals and terminate on other neurons (dendrites), skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, or glands. (some secrete hormones into a blood capillary - special case -- neurosecretion

25

What is it called when neurons make contact with other neurons and/or effector cells?

Synapse

26

What are the different shapes of a perikaryon? Where are these shapes usually found?

- Round or oval (pyriform) - pseudounipolar neurons and purkinje cells in cerebellum
- Pyramidal (pyramid shaped) - in brain cortex
- Stellate - multipolar motor neurons in spinal cord

27

what is found in the cell body (soma/perikaryon) of a neuron?

Round nucleus, nucleolus, nissl substance, golgi apparatus, mitochondria, lipofuscin granules, lysosomes, axon hillock

28

What are the parts of an axon?

- axoplasm
- axolemma
- telodendron (location of synapse)

29

What is an axosomatic synapse?

synapse on cell body

30

What is an axodendritic synapse?

synapse on a dendrite