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Vet Microanatomy 1 > Integument > Flashcards

Flashcards in Integument Deck (75)
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1

List 5 epidermal derivatives

foot pads, claws, hooves, horns (but not antlers), anal sacs/glands, mammary glands, uropygial glands, wattles, spurs, feathers

2

Skin Functions

protection, prevent water loss, temperature regulation, sensation, immune functino, excretion, water-ion balance (sweating), calcium homeostasis, energy storage

3

functions of hair

insulation, camouflage, social display, sensory, protection

4

what are the 3 layers of the skin?

epidermis, dermis, and hypodermis

5

epidermis is made of

stratified squamous keratinized epithelium

6

what are the two layers of dermis

papillary and reticular layers

7

hypoddrmis/subcutis is sometimes rich in what? What does the hypodermis attach to?

-rich in adipocytes
-attaches loosely to organs

8

what layer of skin is thick skin? what are some other characteristics of thick skin?

Epidermis
-hairless, merocrine sweat glands present, ie. digital pads, muzzles

9

what layer is thin skin? name some characteristics

thin skin is part of the epidermis
-hair follicles with arrector pili muscles, sebaceous and sweat glands

10

[thick vs thin skin picture]

-

11

[epidermal pegs picture] what are the names of these structure, and where is it found?

1. epidermal pegs: downward projections of epidermis into the underlying dermis
2. dermal papillae: upward projections from dermis
-footpad, nasal planum, scrotum; found at areas subject to traction stress

12

dermal papillae function

increase area of contact between dermis and epidermis
-bring blood vessels near epithelium

13

what is the main component of dermis?

connective tissue

14

Papillary layer: what type of connective tissue is it made of? What type of ollagen? What other chatacteristics does it possess?

-loose CT
-type 1 and 3 collagen
-mast cells, macrophages, vessels, and nerves
[insert picture of papillary and reticular layers]

15

Reticular layer: type of connective tissue, type of collagen, and other characteristics

-dense irregular ct
-type 1 collagen
-network of elastic fibers, blood vessels, and nerves

16

skin elasticity refers to what in the dermis?

the network of elastic fibers present in the reticular layer [insert skin elasticity picture]

17

cells of the epidermis can fall into one of two categories:

keratinocytes or non-keratinocytes

18

keratinocytes are...

most common cell type of the epidermis: they make up 95% of the epidermis

19

non-keratinocytes include...

-langerhans cells - part of immune system
-merkel's cells - sensory cells
-melanocytes - protective
-intraepithelial lymphocytes

20

adhere cells of the epidermis include

desmosomes between cells and hemidesmosomes attaching to the basal lamina

21

epidermal layers are constantly replacing...

cytoplasm with keratin, to continually add to the outer layer

22

layers of the epidermis include [picture of layers of epidermis]

stratum basale
stratum spinosum
stratum granulosum
stratum lucidum
stratum corneum

23

[picture of stratum basale]

stratum basale
-epidermal-dermal junction
-single layer of cuboidal-columnar cells
-rests on basal lamina, possesses hemidesmosomes and desmosomes
-melanocytes may be present

24

[picture of adhere cells]

1. adherens junctions
2. keratin filaments
3. desmosomes
4. hemidesmosomes

25

stratum basale function

-mitotic division allows new cells to move up to keratinize on upper layers

26

[pictures of stratum spinosum]
-what is this layer called and what are its characteristics?

-cuboidal or slightly flattened
-in thin skin there are 1-2 layers, in thick there are many
-desmosomes give spiny appearance (aka prickle cells layer)
-cohesive cells that resist abrasion
-layer retains some mitotic capability if needed

27

[pictures of desmosomes]
what are these structures?

desmosomes

28

[stratum granulosum]

-stratum granulosum
-3-5 thin layers, may be hard to see
-possesses keratohyalin granuales
-stains basophilic
-no mitotic activity; it is the last living layer, last to have nucleus and organelles
-has lamellar gramules

29

lamellar granules

-secreted by cells to form waterproof lipid sheets aka intercellular cement

30

stratum lucidum

-stratum lucidum
-translucent lyaer present only in thick skin
-many keratin filaments and desmosomes present
-cells fully keratinized
-cytoplasm contains eleidin, protein related to keratin
-have pyknotic nuclei