Endocrinology of Parturition Flashcards Preview

Endo/Repro Exam 2 > Endocrinology of Parturition > Flashcards

Flashcards in Endocrinology of Parturition Deck (37):
1

What is the mean duration of human singleton pregnancy?

280 days or 40 weeks from the first day of the last normal menstrual period

2

What is meant by "Term"?

Period from 37 to 42 weeks

3

What is meant by "Preterm"?

Delivery before 37 weeks

4

What is meant by "Post-term"?

Pregnancy beyond 42 weeks

5

Four phases of pregnancy:

Phase 1: Quiescence
Phase 2: Activation
Phase 3: Stimulation
Phase 4: Involution

6

Where is the majority of relaxin produced during pregnancy?

Corpus luteum

7

Which hormones play a role in phase 1?

P4
Relaxin
hCG
CRH
NO

8

Which hormones play a role in phase 2?

E3
P4
Ferguson reflex
CRH
Relaxin
PGE

9

Which hormones play a role in phase 3?

PGE
OT
Relaxin
CRH
Inflammatory reaction
Surfactant Protein A

10

Which hormones play a role in phase 4?

OT
inflammatory reaction

11

How do estrogen and progesterone act in myometrial quiescence?

Through an increase in cGMP

12

Three major effects of prostaglandins:

1.) Stimulate uterine contraction
2.) PGF2alpha promotes formation of gap junctions between uterine SM cells for contractions
3.) Ripens, dilates, thins the cervix

13

What does PGE2 and PF2alpha do?

PGE2: dilates cervical blood vessels and leads to cervical ripening
PF2a: increases total GAGs activity

14

What occurs in phase 2?

Increased OT receptors
Estrodiol increased

15

Increased levels of CRH in phase 2 leads to what?

Fetal cortisol stimulation of prostaglandin synthesis

16

What is responsible for fetal lung maturation?

Glucocorticoids

17

How can CRH induce spontaneous labor?

CRH stimulates fetal ACTH release stimulating GC production; once CRH stops GC production it means the babies lungs are ready and labor inducing forces begin

18

Two way oxytocin induces uterine contractions:

1.) Stimulates release of PGE2 and PF2a by activation of PLC
2.) Directly causes myometrial contractions through PLC -> Ca2+ intracellularly

19

What is puerperium?

From delivery of placenta through first few weeks after delivery (6 weeks)

20

Repair processes post-partum occur in what three phases?

Immediate: 24 hours
Early: 7 days
Remote: 6 weeks

21

What contributes to postpartum depression?

Precipitous drop in estrogen and progesterone

22

Effect of P4 on milk production?

Suppress milk production during pregnancy by inhibiting PRL

23

Most important galactopoietic hormone?

Prolactin

24

Most important galactokinetic hormone?

Oxytocin

25

What is the milk ejection reflex?

Stimulation by nipple sucking sends signals to the hypothalamus to release OT from posterior pituitary where it bind smooth muscle in mammary glands and they contract

26

Four stages of lactation:

Stage I: Mammogenesis-preparation of the breasts
Stage II: Lactogenesis- synthesis and secretion of milk
Stage III: Galactopoiesis- maintenance of lactation
Stage IV: Involution- return to non-lactating breasts

27

When does mammogenesis occur?

12 weeks before delivery; colostrum is present the first rich milk

28

When does lactogenesis occur?

2-3 days after birth when the milk comes in; P4 drops PRL stays high

29

What is the organization of secretory tissue in breast?

Alveolus organized into lobules which drain into ductules which widens at the ampulla and drain into the lactiferous duct

30

What is contained in colostrum?

Protein and minerals (low in carbs/fats)
Antibodies to for passive immunity
Laxative for first bowel movements

31

What is galactopoiesis?

Production of milk; a supply and demand system

32

Effects of lactation on GnRH?

Inhibits GnRH release and therefore release of FSH and LH and the ovarian cycle is inhibited

33

Medications that improve milk production?

Metoclopramide
Sulpurude
Intranasal oxytocin

34

How does metoclopramide work?

Increases PRL levels

35

How does sulpurude work?

Dopamine antagonist

36

Drugs to suppress lactation?

Bromocriptine

37

How does Bromocriptine work?

Dopamine agonist