Flashcards in Male and Female Pubertal Development Deck (34):
What is thelarche?
Onset of breast development, an estrogen effect
What is pubarche?
Onset of sexual hair growth, an androgen effect
What is menarche?
Onset of menses
What is spermarche?
Appearance of sperm in seminal fluid
What is gonadarche?
Onset of pubertal function of the gonads
What is adrenarche?
Onset of adrenal androgen production
What is a better marker for determining when a child will enter puberty: bone age or chronological age?
What is the role of fat and beginning of puberty?
A critical amount of body fat is the weight-related trigger for pubertal development
What is released by fat cells to cause GnRH release?
What is precocious puberty?
What is considered precocious puberty in females?
Thelarche or pubarche before 8 years of age
What is considered precocious puberty in males?
Pubarche or genital development before 9 years of age
What race is thelarche normal in girls at age 7?
Effect of precocious puberty on height?
Premature closure of epiphyseal plates and short stature despite tall stature in childhood
What is premature thelarche usually due to?
Minimal activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis with predominant FSH secretion
How is delayed puberty defined in females?
Lack of breast development by age 13
How is delayed puberty defined in males?
Lack of pubertal testicular development by age 14
What is the state of the HPG axis in childhood?
What is the HPG axis state in females beginning puberty?
Ovarian secretion of estradiol peaks during the day
What is the HPG axis state in males beginning puberty?
Testicular production of testosterone peaks during sleep
Estradiol effects on linear growth?
Low level: enhances linear growth
High level: increases rate of epiphyseal fusion
What does progesterone cause in breast?
Lobuloalveolar breast development
What neurotransmitters are stimulants in puberty?
What neurotransmitters are inhibitors of puberty?
Progression of pubertal development in females?
Thelarche -> Growth Spurt -> Pubarche -> Menarche
Progression of pubertal development in males?
Testicular enlargement -> Penile and scrotal growth -> Pubarche -> Growth Spurt
What Tanner stage does linear growth occur in males?
3 and 4
What does Tanner staging describe?
Breast development in males
External genitalia development in males
Pubic hair development in both
Difference in breast Tanner stage III and IV?
III: Enlargement of breast and areola with no separation of areolar contour from breast
IV: Areola and papilla project above breast forming a secondary mound
Difference in male genitalia Tanner stage IV and V?
IV: Pubic hair is only on mons pubis
V: Pubic hair on thighs and up abdomen
What hormones are primarily responsible for linear growth?
GH and Testosterone
What hormones is primarily responsible for stopping linear growth?
What Tanner stage does linear growth start in females?