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Flashcards in Energy Metabolism Deck (60)
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1

_________ is the state in which energy intake, in the form of food and/or beverage matches the energy expended

Energy balance

2

What are the characteristics of positive energy balance?

Energy intake > energy expended
Stored energy eventually results in weight gain

3

In what situations is it good to have a positive energy balance?

Pregnancy
Infancy
Childhood
Following disease to restore healthy body weight

4

What are the characteristics of negative energy balance

Energy intake < energy expended

Energy stored ( fat and muscle) is used to make up for the shortfall in energy intake resulting in weight loss

5

What is the definition of 1 kilocalorie

The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1 degree Celsius

6

What are the 4 methods of energy output?

BMR (basal metabolic rate)
Physical activity
Digestion, absorption and processing of ingested nutrients (thermic effect of food)
Thermogenesis

7

What si BMR?

The minimum energy expended to keep a resting, awake body alive in a fasting state (12 h or more)

8

What are some charcteristics of BMR?

60-70% of total energy needs
Included energy needed for maintaining a heartbeat, respiration, body temperature

9

_______ is energy used by the body when the person is NOT fasting or completely rested

RMR

10

_______ is typically about 6% higher than _____

RMR is typically about 6% higher than the BMR

11

What is the basal metabolism energy factor for men? Women?

Men: 1 kcal/kg HBW X hr

Women: 0.9 kcal/kg HBW X hr

*HBW= healthy body weight

12

What does EER stand for?

Estimated energy requirements

13

EER takes into account what to estimate the energy requirements of adult males or females?

Height
Weight
Physical activity

14

What are the factors that influence Basal metabolism?

Body surface area (weight, height)
Gender
Lean body mass
Body temperature
Thyroid hormone
Nervous system activity
Age ( decreases every 10 years over 30)
Caloric intake
Pregnancy
Use of caffeine and tobacco

15

________ is the energy used to digest, absorb, and metabolize food nutrients

Thermic effect of food (TEF)

16

______ meals gives higher TEF values than the same amount of food eaten over many hours

Large meals

17

TEF depends in art on food composition
__________> ______> ______

Protein rich > carb-rich > Fat rich

18

________ is nonvoluntary physical activity triggered by overeating or cold environment

Thermogenesis

19

What are examples of thermogenesis

Fidgeting
Shivering
Maintenance of muscle tone
Posture
Increases in the sympathetic NS activity

20

brown adipose tissue is an example of _______. Where proteins uncouple energy release from ATP production. Energy is lost as ____

Thermogenesis
Heat

21

________ measures heat output from the body using an insulated chamber

Direct calorimetry

22

________ measures the amount of oxygen a person uses

Indirect calorimetry

23

A relationship exists between the body’s use of energy and ______

Oxygen

*1L of O2 per every 5 calories.
*2000 calories need about 400 L of O2

24

________ estimates resting energy needs in clinical situations (resting energy)

Harris-Benedict equation

25

What are the BMI ranges for the following?
Underweight
Healthyweight
Overweight
Obese
Morbidly/severely obese

Underweight <18.5
Healthy weight 18.5-24.9
Overweight 25-29.9
Obese 30-39.9
Severely obese >40

26

What is the healthy BMI range? What BMI does health risks start?

Healthy BMI - 18.5-24.9
Health risks start at BMI greater than or equal to 25

27

______ alone should not be used to diagnose overweight or obesity

BMI

28

A BMI of 25 to 29.9 is a marker of ______, not necessarily a marker of _______

Overweight; overfat

29

What are ways of measuring body fat content?

Underwater weighing
BodPod
Skinfold thickness
Bioelectrical impedance analysis
DEXA (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry)

30

_____ is very Accurate in measuring body fat content because fat is less dense than lean tissue

Underwater weighing