Flashcards in Energy Metabolism Deck (60)
_________ is the state in which energy intake, in the form of food and/or beverage matches the energy expended
What are the characteristics of positive energy balance?
Energy intake > energy expended
Stored energy eventually results in weight gain
In what situations is it good to have a positive energy balance?
Following disease to restore healthy body weight
What are the characteristics of negative energy balance
Energy intake < energy expended
Energy stored ( fat and muscle) is used to make up for the shortfall in energy intake resulting in weight loss
What is the definition of 1 kilocalorie
The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1 degree Celsius
What are the 4 methods of energy output?
BMR (basal metabolic rate)
Digestion, absorption and processing of ingested nutrients (thermic effect of food)
What si BMR?
The minimum energy expended to keep a resting, awake body alive in a fasting state (12 h or more)
What are some charcteristics of BMR?
60-70% of total energy needs
Included energy needed for maintaining a heartbeat, respiration, body temperature
_______ is energy used by the body when the person is NOT fasting or completely rested
_______ is typically about 6% higher than _____
RMR is typically about 6% higher than the BMR
What is the basal metabolism energy factor for men? Women?
Men: 1 kcal/kg HBW X hr
Women: 0.9 kcal/kg HBW X hr
*HBW= healthy body weight
What does EER stand for?
Estimated energy requirements
EER takes into account what to estimate the energy requirements of adult males or females?
What are the factors that influence Basal metabolism?
Body surface area (weight, height)
Lean body mass
Nervous system activity
Age ( decreases every 10 years over 30)
Use of caffeine and tobacco
________ is the energy used to digest, absorb, and metabolize food nutrients
Thermic effect of food (TEF)
______ meals gives higher TEF values than the same amount of food eaten over many hours
TEF depends in art on food composition
__________> ______> ______
Protein rich > carb-rich > Fat rich
________ is nonvoluntary physical activity triggered by overeating or cold environment
What are examples of thermogenesis
Maintenance of muscle tone
Increases in the sympathetic NS activity
brown adipose tissue is an example of _______. Where proteins uncouple energy release from ATP production. Energy is lost as ____
________ measures heat output from the body using an insulated chamber
________ measures the amount of oxygen a person uses
A relationship exists between the body’s use of energy and ______
*1L of O2 per every 5 calories.
*2000 calories need about 400 L of O2
________ estimates resting energy needs in clinical situations (resting energy)
What are the BMI ranges for the following?
Healthy weight 18.5-24.9
Severely obese >40
What is the healthy BMI range? What BMI does health risks start?
Healthy BMI - 18.5-24.9
Health risks start at BMI greater than or equal to 25
______ alone should not be used to diagnose overweight or obesity
A BMI of 25 to 29.9 is a marker of ______, not necessarily a marker of _______
What are ways of measuring body fat content?
Bioelectrical impedance analysis
DEXA (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry)