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Flashcards in Vitamins And Minerals Deck (228)
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1

______ are essential organic substances that produce deficiency symptoms when missing from diet

Vitamins

2

What are the basic functions of vitamins?

Coenzymes
Hormones
Antioxidants

3

T/F: vitamins yield no energy

True

4

What vitamins are important in blood formation (and clotting)?

Vitamin B-6 (PLP)
Vitamin B-12 (cobalamin)
Folate
Vitamin K

5

What vitamins play a role in protein and amino acid metabolism

Vitamin B-6
Folate
Vitamin B-12
Vitamin C
Choline (not a true vitamin)
Riboflavin (indirect)

6

What vitamins are important in antioxidant defenses?

Vitamin E
Vitamin C
Carotenoids
Riboflavin (indirect)

7

What vitamins are important in gene expression

Vitamin A and Vitamin D

8

What vitamins are important in bone health?

Vitamin A
Vitamin D
Vitamin K
Vitamin C

9

What vitamins are important in energy metabolism

Thiamin
Riboflavin
Niacin
Panthothenic acid
Biotin
Vitamin B-12 (cobalamin)

10

What fat soluble vitamins can accumulate in the body and be toxic?

Particularly vitamins A and D

11

Vitamin toxicity is most likely due to ______

Supplementation

12

________ vitamins are not readily excreted and can cause toxicity

Fat soluble vitamins

13

How are fat-soluble vitamins transported?

Transported with fat in lipoproteins

14

Vitamin A (retinoids) is a _____.
_______ is important in visual pigment
______ is important in the immune system
_______ is important in cell growth and proliferation

Hormone
Retinal
Retinol
Retinoate

15

Vitamin D is a ______ and is important in ____ and ____ regulation

Hormone
Blood calcium and phosphorus regulation

16

Vitamin E is a ________. And may have some ______ function

General antioxidant

Coenzyme function. Aids in stabilizing free radicals

17

Vitamin K is a __________. It is important in ______ in blood and bone proteins

Prosthetic group coenzyme
Carboxylation glutamate

18

What are the major funcitons of vitamin A>

Promote vision
Promote growth
Prevent drying of skin and eyes
Promote resistance to bacterial infection and overall immune system function

19

What is the RDA of vitamin a for women? Men?

700 micrograms -women
900 micrograms-men

2300-3000 IU if as preformed vitamin A

20

What are the dietary sources of preformed vitamin A?

Liver
Fortified milk
Fortified breakfast cereals

21

What are the dietary sources of provitamin A?

Sweet potatoes
Spinach
Greens
Carrots
Cantaloupe
Apricots
Broccoli

22

What are some deficiency symptoms?

Night blindness
Xerophthalmia
Poor growth
Dry skin

23

________ vitamin A isn’t toxic but ______ vitamin A is toxic

Proformed; preformed

24

What are the major functions of vitamin D?

Increase absorption o calcium and phosphorus
Maintain optimal blood calcium and calcification of bone

25

What is the RDA of vitamin D?

15 micrograms
600 IU

26

What are the dietary source so vitamin D?

Vitamin D fortified milk
Fortified breakfast cereals
Fish oils
Sardines
Salmon

27

What are the deficiency symptoms of vitamin D?

Rickets in children
Osteomalacia in adults

28

What are the toxicity symptoms of vitamin D?

Growth retardation
Kidney damage
Calcium deposits in soft tissue

Upper level 100 micrograms

29

What are the main functions of vitamin E?

Antioxidant prevents breakdown of vitamin A and unsaturated fatty acids

30

What is the RDA of vitamin E?

15 mg alpha tocopherol

22 IU natural form 33 IU synthetic form