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IGCSE edexcel Physics > Energy Resources > Flashcards

Flashcards in Energy Resources Deck (31)
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1

Pros of coal energy

It's reliable
Coal plants provide lots of jobs- lots of processes involved
It's good for the economy: brought in $3.1 billion dollars to Kentucky

2

Cons of coal energy

Fossil fuel- releases SO2 and CO2 (acid rain and greenhouse gas)
Burning coal makes up 31% of all CO2 in our atmosphere
It's non-renewable

3

How oil energy is made

Burn it and the heat produced- water to steam. Steam turns blades of turbine + turbine turns the generator (which is a magnet inside a coil)

4

Pros of oil energy

It's reliable
It can be used to generate huge amounts of electrical energy
Oil is very abundant

5

Cons of oil energy

Fossil fuel- releases SO2 and CO2 (acid rain and greenhouse gas)
Drilling for oil pretty much destroys the environment
It's non-renewable

6

How is coal energy made?

Crush it into a powder, then burn it. Heat produced- water to steam. Steam turns blades of turbine + powers generator

7

How is gas energy made?

Burn it and the heat produced- water to steam. Steam turns blades of turbine + powers generator

8

Pros of gas energy

It is widely used and contributes to 21% of the world's energy production
It emits 45% less CO2 than coal and 30% less than oil
It is easy to transport via pipelines
When it is burnt, there is no waste produced like ash

9

Cons of gas energy

It's non-renewable
It emits CO2 when it's burnt
It contains 80-95% methane which is worse for the environment than CO2
If a country only has access to one gas source and that gas source is cut off, then that country is going to suffer terribly

10

How does nuclear power work?

The nuclei of atoms in uranium fuel pellets are split (nuclear fission) and lots of energy is released (kinetic). This kinetic energy produces heat inside a nuclear reactor- turns water to steam. Steam turns blades of a turbine and is attached to a generator- generates electricity

11

Pros of nuclear energy

Cost-effective alternative to fossil fuels
Doesn't release any CO2 or SO2
It produces much more electricity per kg of nuclear fuel than fossil fuels

12

Cons of nuclear energy

Radioactive waste produced is really expensive to store (deep underground with thick concrete walls) and costs billions
It is also a threat to humans and the environment and stays with us for 200,000 years
Mining for uranium devastates the environment and waste produced is radioactive
Decommissioning a nuclear power station takes about 30yrs and costs billions
It takes a gas station seconds to start up but it takes a nuclear power station 6 months

13

How does wave energy work?

A chamber is built partially underwater with a small area on the surface allowing water to come in and out of it. Waves cause air above them to be forced in and out of a hole in the top of the chamber and a turbine is placed in the hole. Turbine turned by the air coming in and out. It's attached to a generator which generates electricity

14

Pros of wave energy

It's renewable
It's reliable: there are always going to be waves
Wave farms produce so much energy- waves are so powerful (further out to sea they produce 100kW every meter)

15

Cons of wave energy

It isn't predictable: you can't control the features of a wave like speed or length
Very expensive
Power plants need frequent maintenance- lots of the parts are underwater- even more expensive
Plants can affect tourism when they're visible from the shore- sea-side towns

16

How does geothermal energy work?

The splitting of nuclei (fission) in the earth causes rocks to heat up. Rocks heat up water deep under the earth's surface. Resulting steam turns a turbine which has KE tf turbine turns a generator for electrical energy.

17

Pros of geothermal energy

It's renewable
Its carbon footprint is almost non-existent; development of geothermal resources helps fighting global warming
Producing geothermal energy doesn't require any fuel- the price stays pretty much the same harnessing the energy

18

Cons of geothermal energy

Geothermal power projects are expensive due to the drilling required to make a geothermal reservoir (one with the capacity of 1 megawatt typically costs $2-7 million)
Good geothermal reservoirs are quite rare- not many countries have enough good resources
Rain can damage the reservoirs- over the years it seeps through the earth's surface and the reservoirs become exhausted if the water is removed faster than it is replaced

19

How does wave energy work?

A chamber is built partially underwater with a small area on the surface allowing water to come in and out of it. Waves cause air above them to be forced in and out of a hole in the top of the chamber and a turbine is placed in the hole. Turbine turned by the air coming in and out. It's attached to a generator which generates electricity

20

Pros of wave energy

It's renewable
It's reliable: there are always going to be waves
Wave farms produce so much energy- waves are so powerful (further out to sea they produce 100kW every meter)

21

Cons of wave energy

It isn't predictable: you can't control the features of a wave like speed or length
Very expensive
Power plants need frequent maintenance- lots of the parts are underwater- even more expensive
Plants can affect tourism when they're visible from the shore- sea-side towns

22

Wind energy

Wind turns blades of turbine- blades spin a shaft- shaft attached to generator- generates energy
Wind farms- lots of turbines in one place- more cost-effective

23

Pros of wind energy

Renewable
Cheap compared to other renewable resources
Doesn't emit any harmful gases
It can be harnessed anywhere- huge potential
Space efficient- farming can be in between them
Prices are falling- new technologies- 80% in last 35yrs
Homeowners can harness their own energy

24

Cons of wind energy

Unreliable- wind does not blow consistently- some countries are windier than others
Turbines are large and unattractive- make a lot of noise
Built offshore- expensive
Threat to birds

25

Tidal

Tidal energy generators- built where there is high tidal movement- designed to get the motion of the tides- ebbing and surging
Tide ebbs or surges through the turbine- generator is connected

26

Pros of tidal energy

Renewable
Doesn't emit harmful gases
Currents are predictable
Plants last for a long time- reduces cost

27

Cons of tidal energy

Plants have to be built near land- obstructs peoples' views- can only be built at specific sites (20 with high potential)
Mudflats are damaged- causes marine animals to leave area
Power stations only produce power for half a day
Expensive to construct

28

Solar

Solar panels are made from silicon atoms. Bonds between these atoms are made of electrons
Solar panels absorb the light from the sun- one electron in the bond receives this energy and becomes mobile (becomes delocalised)- it creates a current

29

Pros of solar energy

Renewable
Harnessing the energy doesn't cause any pollution- processes involved (manufacturing, transporting and building) do
It is silent
Definitely abundant- earth gets 20,000 times more power from solar radiation than is necessary to supply the whole world
Only need to be cleaned twice a year

30

Cons of solar energy

Unreliable- cloudy or rainy day- no energy produced
Expensive to store energy once produced- don't normally have too much energy though
Production of solar energy- associated with emissions of greenhouse gases (nitrogen trifluride and sulphur hexafluoride)- more harmful than CO2