Flashcards in Environmental Health Deck (13):
Appropriate treatment for phosgene exposure includes:
a) rest, warmth, and sedation.
b) supplemental oxygen.
c) Atropine and expectorants
d) A and B
e) All of the above
D. A and B. Following exposure, the mild irritation initially subsides and a latent (symptomless) period ensues. With the recurrence of chest tightness and coughing, rest, warmthh, and sedation are indicated. With the onset of dyspnea, the patient may benefit from supplemental oxygen. However, atropine, expectorants, antihistamines, and analeptics are not indicated.
For heat-acclimatized men performing moderate physical work in a hot environment, which of the following should be provided at the job site?
a) Access to water
b) Access to colas and other sweetened liquids
c) Ad lib intake of salt tablets
d) supervised intake of salt tablets
e) a, b and c
a) Access to water.
During an unexpected hold before take off on a clear day, a pilot with a bubble canopy fighter aircraft encounters the following conditions: dry bulb temperature of 100 degrees, humidity of 50% and good air circulation in the cabin. What is the pathway for body heat dissipation?
Evaporation only because the temperature is greater than body temperature, so convection would actually add heat. Conduction to his clothes or seat are negligeable. Evaporation is therefore his only seat sink.
The Wind Chill Index:
a) is based on subjective judgment of cold discomfort
b) is based on measured cooling of the atmosphere
c) has been empirically correlated with "time to freezing" for exposed flesh
d) All the above
D) All the above
A 35 year old male runner completes a marathon in 3.5 hours. He experiences some leg cramps during the last few miles, and ten minutes after the race complains of dizziness. Upon examination at the aid station, his heart rate is 105 bpm, rectal temperature is 105F, and he is sweating profusely. He lost about 3 kg during the race. The probably diagnosis is:
a) incipient heat stroke
b) post-exercise hypokalemia
c) exercise induced hyperthermia
d) moderate dehydration
e) c and d
e) C and D.
Severe hypothermia is an occassional item for flying safety briefings. Which of the following is the most effective method of treatment?
a) inhalation of warm oxygen
b) hot bath
c) piped suit
d) spontaneous rewarming
b) hot bath
In immersion syndrome what two things should you avoid?
Do not massage the parts or dip them in hot or cold water or any water for that matter. Gradual rewarming in cool dry air is best.
Water survival encompasses many factors. The greatest danger by far, however, is hypothermia. Which of the following is NOT true regarding hypothermia in water exposure in a survival situation?
a) Heat is conducted away from the body 26 times the rate it would be in air.
b) survival time is decreased by staying still in the water.
c) HELP (Heat Escape Lessening Posture) can double the survival time
d) Obesity tends to increase survival time
e) hyperglycemia generally occurs in hypothermia
b) Survival time is actually INCREASED by holding still in the water. The HELP position involves bringing the knees to the chest and drawing both arms to the chest. Water does have a thermal conductivity of 26 times that of air. Hyperglycemia from hypothermia has been well documented.
Severe hypothermia is characterized by
a) intense shivering
b) hypertensive episodes
e) nausea and vomiting
C) Severe hypothermia may be characterized by apnea, hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias and coma.
At what core temperature can the brain survive for up to 30 mins in a hypothermia situation due to decreased metabolic demands?
20 degrees C for up to 30 mins.
During cold water immersion, strategies for reducing the cooling rate include all of the following EXCEPT:
a) light exercise, such as swimming or treading water, to increase body heat production
b) assuming the HELP position
c) remaining absolutely still in the water if drowning is not a concern
d) forming a huddle with several other people
e) wearing extra clothing while in the water
a) the strategy is CONSERVING body heat not producing more body heat.
Describe heat loss in various environments;
temperature surrounding- lost through radiation
cold environments- lost through convection
cold water immersion- lost through conduction
warm environments- lost through evaporation