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Flashcards in Survival and Rescue Deck (15):
0

An individual who has had a previous cold injury has _______ susceptibility to a subsequent injury.
a) increased
b) decreased

a) Increased

1

Because of man's inherent inability to adapt to a water environment, it is essential that the survivor accomplishes which of the following as soon as possible?
a) treat injuries
b) inflate life preservers
c) get out of the water
d) erect environmental cover

C. Get out of the water. No piece of equipment if more important than the life raft. Your life preserver keeps you afloat but does not protect from water temperatures.

2

In free fall at low altitude, a human body attains a velocity of:
a) 125 fps (85 mph) in 5 s in a distance of 400 feet.
b) 85 fps (125 mph) in 5 s in a distance of 400 feet.
c) 150 fps (102 mph) in 7 s in a distance of 700 feet.
d) 102 fps (150 mph) in 7 s in a distance of 700 feet.
e) a and c.

e) This is a trick question. Both a and C are two points on the velocity-distance-time curve. They are 71% and 86% of terminal velocity, respectively, in only 5 s and 7 s.

3

If a pilot wears rigid contact lenses, which is NOT an effect from flying:
a) dislodged lens from G forces and acceleration.
b) Bubbles under lens from altitude.
c) Dryness from low relative humidity.
d) Warpage from low humidity and low oxygen pressure.

d) is NOT an effect from flying. Airmen with rigid lenses are more likely to get centrally located bubble formation. Drying and dislodgement are relatively common in dry cabins and high G accelerations with rigid contacts.

4

Choose the statement below which is LEAST correct.
a) The vertebral region of greatest risk in high Gz impacts is T10-12.
b) The cervical column has greatest potential for withstanding injury during severe impact stresses when in hyperextension and rotated.
c) Blunt injury to the chest commonly results in a number of injuries including rupture of the heart or large vessels.
d) The spleen and liver are the most vulnerable viscera in the abdomen

1. B is incorrect. The cervical column is relatively more vulnerable to impact forces applied in a hyperextended and abducted neck than in hyperflexion. Back injury during ejection or fast sink rate impacts commonly occurs between T10-T12.

5

Many factors exist which favorably influence the ability of the human to withstand larger deceleration forces occuring during a crash. Select the correct answer.
a) Man can withstand greater magnitudes of deceleration if they are applied at faster rates.
b) It is possible to attentuate some of the crash forces by providing resilient cushions around the man.
c) Crash forces are better tolerated from a forward and backward direction.
d) It is possible to increase the magnitude tolerated by increasing the duration of the applied force.

C. The body can withstand greater forces from a Gx direction than from a Gy or Gz direction.

6

Survivability of impact forces is determined by a number of physical factors including:
a) jolt
b) magnitude of accelerative force
c) momentum
d) a and b above
e) all of the above

E. all of the above

7

The physiologic determinant of tolerance for the human body to + Gz impact deceleration is (are):
a) forces which exceed the body's cardiovascular reflex centers for regulation of blood pressure and pulse.
b) the hydrostatic column effect which causes changes in cerebral circulation.
c) forces which exceed the body tissues mechanical stress limits.
d) tunnel vision and subsequent black-out with loss of consciousness
e) none of the above.

c. Impact decelerations are defined to have pulse durations of not more than one second. Tolerance is defined only by the body tissue's ability to withstand high forces.

8

Which of the following conditions provides the best impact protection for an aerospace vehicle occupant restrained in a double shoulder strap and lap belt harness?
a) Occupant seated on an easily deformable cushion with restraint tightly adjusted.
b) Occupant seated on an easily deformable cushion with restraint loosely adjusted.
c) Occupant seated on no cushion with restraint tightly adjusted
d) Occupant seated on no cushion with restraint loosely adjusted

c. The major goal of impact protection is to restrict motion of the body segments. The soft deformable seats applifies the acceleration. Ejection seats have relatively thin cushions and are inelastic.

9

Whole body tolerance to abrupt acceleration is a function of:
a) direction of acceleration
b) magnitude of acceleration
c) duration of acceleration
d) rate of onset of acceleration
e) All the above

e) All of the above

10

In free fall at low altitude, a human body attains a velocity of:
a) 125 fps (85 mph) in 5 s in a distance of 400 ft.
b) 85 fps (125 mph) in 5 s in a distance of 400 ft.
c) 150 fps (102 mph) in 7 s in a distance of 700 ft.
d) 102 fps (150 mph) in 7 s in a distance of 700 ft.
e) a and c.

e) All of the number in a and c are correct for two point on the velocity distance time curve. Notice that they are 71% and 86% of terminal velocity, respectively, in only 5 s and 7 s.

11

Human impact tolerance is related to which of the following factors?
a) direction, magnitude, and time history of the imposed acceleration
b) restraint harness materials
c) restraint harness geometry
d) condition of the restraint harness occupant
e) all of the above

e) All of the above

12

At the organ system level, impact injuries are produced by:
a) acceleration
b) strain
c) stress
d) force

b. strain. The human body responds to applied forces by a combination of acceleration and strain. It is strain which is associated with injury and which must, therefore, be minimized during impact.

13

Antivenom is the most important aspect of snakebite treatment. How many vials are typically needed?

At least three vials, and up to eight vials in severe envenomation. Children require more antivenom and usually require twice the adult dose.

14

As a survivor, what is your most immediate source of shelter?
a) the airplane
b) survival kit
c) extra clothing in the aircraft
d) the clothing you are wearing
e) surrounding terrain

The most important is the clothing you are wearing. Everything else is secondary.