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Flashcards in Human Factors Deck (33)
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Under normal circumstances, caffeine has a half life of ________, with a range from 2 to 10 hours.

3.5 hours


Caffeine is regulated by the neurotransmitter ________ in the central nervous system, specifically in the forebrain. It is not a direct stimulant per se, as it allows the body's own stimulating neurotransmitters, including glutamate and dopamine, to work without restraint.



The Aerospace Medicine Association position supports caffeine as an effective aviation fatigue countermeasure and recommends less than _________mg of caffeine in a 24 hour period and not within four hours of going to sleep.



Caffeine also induces a temporary diminution of sleep deprivation or sleep demand. These effects are achieved at a daily consumption of _______mg of caffeine, or a single ________mg dose. Since a cup of coffee contains about 100mg of caffeine while popular cafe' coffees such as Starbucks range from 250-550mg a cup. A cup of tea contains about 30mg, and a cola drink about 50mg, therefore maximum levels are easily achieved.

300mg daily consumption or a single dose of 200mg.


What is the acute human fatal dose of caffeine?

What dose does toxicity occur?

10 grams

1 gram


Serious side effects such as atrial fibrillation, epilepsy, and toxicity have been reported with what beverages containing Guarana?

Energy drinks such as Red Bull, Full Throttle, and Monster.


While some protective benefits of caffeine consumption have been demonstrated, a consideration for older female pilots is the association between high caffeine consumption (> 6 cups per day) with concurrent postmenopausal hormone therapy and a fourfold increase in __________ disease.



True or False. Methylated xanthine medications (caffeine, theophylline, and aminophylline) can interfere with stress testing.



Which of the following poses no significant risk?
a) Airman who infrequently drinks coffeee presents with anxiety, palpitations, and elevated blood pressure after visiting a locale cafe' and enjoying espresso.
b) Airman who is a habitual coffee drinker is scheduled for an ECG tomorrow.
c) Airman who is a smoker, reports using three (750mg total intake) caffeinated energy drinks as a fatigue countermeasure for shift work.
d) Airman with normal glucose tolerance who is a nonsmoker reports drinking eight cups of coffee a day and a No-Doze nightly on the evening shift.

D. The airman is within the 1,000 mg of caffeine a day for alertness for his nightshift.


Which of the following statements regarding stress is true?
A) The effects of stress are expressed only through physiological manifestations, such as rapid heart rate.
B) The same stressor will affect a specific person the same way, no matter when it occurs.
C) The same stressor can bother some people more than others.
D) Each stressor is distinct; stressors do not have additive effects.

C) the same stressor can bother some people more than others.


A 49- year old private pilot seeking a renewal of his third class medical certificate presents with a complaint of increasing fatigue. He recently had a complete workup with his family physician, where nothing was remarkable. His work schedule is stressful and demanding leading to difficulties falling asleep. To aid in coping with the long work hours he is a heavy coffee drinker. What countermeasures should the pilot employ to decrease his levels of fatigue?
A) If he has difficulty falling asleep at night he should remain in bed to take advantage of the opportunity to rest.
B) Avoid exercise, as it tends to increase arousal and reduce the quality of sleep.
C) The pilot should avoid consumption of caffeine within 4 hours of going to bed.
D) Naps should be avoided as they can interfere with sleeping at night.

C) The should avoid consumption of caffeine within four hours of bedtime.


The primary source of information we use to orient ourselves in the 3- dimensional aerospace environment is ________.

Visual (90%)


Roughly ______ % of all civilian fatal aircraft accidents are attributed to spatial disorientation.



Of crashes involving spatial disorientation the fatality rate is __________.



Most modern air forces have a fairly consistent loss of _________% of pilot trainees for persistent motion sickness.



Human factors in aircraft accidents include such areas as physical disability, errors in judgment, crew coordination, and man-machine interface. Although sources and statistics vary, human factors elements appear to be responsible for what percentage of aircraft accidents?
a) 0-20%
b) 21-40%
c) 41 to 60%
d) 61 -80%
e) 81-90%

41 to 60%


What specific organization or group is held responsible by federal law for determining the cause of all US civil aviation accidents?
a) Department of Transportation
b) Federal Aviation Administration
c) National Transportation and Safety Board
d) DOT and FAA joint Task Force on Aviation Safety



Most commercial aircraft are pressurized to a maximum of 8,000 feet which gives the equivalent partial pressure of oxygen of ________ compared to sea level 21%.



The body has specific natural frequencies, depending on its density and make up. The vulnerable range is ________ to ________ Hz.

0.1 to 40 Hz.


Which direction of travel is the most upsetting to biorhythms?

West to East travel, typically 1 day is required for each time zone crossed for full adjustment.


Feeback control in a system that is self-regulating provides for an output than can regulate or control the input. This type of system is known as a:
a) closed loop
b) open-loop
c) end-loop
d) continuous loop
e) infinite loop

a) Feeback control in a system that is self regulating provides for an output that can regulate or control the input is known as a closed loop system


The manufacturer of an aircraft as well as the government certifying authorities assume that a pilot's eye is at all times located at a position described as the:
a) design eye
b) cockpit keyhole
c) reference eye
d) all of the above
e) none of the above

d) all of the above


The instrument layout that allows for fast and accurate scan of speed, altitude, attitude and heading is the:
a) synoptic panel
b) basic "T"
c) system check panel
d) status panel
e) flat panel

b) Basic T


A common problem that occurs when a cockpit instrument is not placed directly in front of the pilot because of the distance between a pointer on a display and the surface of the scale is a visual factor known as:
a) an illusion
b) parallax
c) autokinesis
d) poor acuity
e) Presbyopia

B) Parallax


What are the five primary design considerations?

Control-display ratio
Movement direction
Control resistance
Control Coding
Protection against inadvertent action


The heart rate in pilots in normal flight is commonly increased during takeoff and landing. This is best attributed to:
a) risk
b) anxiety
c) threat of physical harm
d) increased workload

d) increased workload


A pilot in a flying situation is, in reality, a processor of information encompassing a system of behavior patterns. All of the following are aspects of the interrelated processing system EXCEPT:
a) concentration
b) perception
c) comprehension
d) decision
e) action

a) Concentration-
It is more about perceiving and comprehending what is happening to the aircraft and then deciding on a course of action that it is specific concentration.


If an image were displayed in one of the following colors, which would produce the most sharply focused image on the retina?
a) Yellow
b) Red
c) Green
d) Blue

a) Yellow is central. Red and Green lie just on either side of the central retina. Therefore Yellow is sharpest.


Visual acuity and viewing comfort for reading illuminated displays will be maximized if the surrounding luminance in relation to the display is:
a) great then luminance of the display
b) equal to the luminance of the display
c) slightly less than the luminance of the display
d) absent.

b) equal to the luminance of the display


Static visual acuity remains fairly constant from age 12 to 60. Dynamic visual acuity, which measure the ability of the observer to pick out detail in a moving target and determines dynamic target recognition begins to deteriorate at what age?