environmental health and tox Flashcards Preview

Facts based on ISU course > environmental health and tox > Flashcards

Flashcards in environmental health and tox Deck (151):
1

An Animal Feeding Operation by definition means you need to bring feed onto premises to feed animals for minimum of ___ days per year.

45 days

2

Toxic principle on Tall Fescue and clinical signs in what species?

Ergovaline alkaloids cause dry gangrene of digits, abdominal fat necrosis, agalactia in late gestation in horses and cattle

3

Black walnut (Juglans nigra) causes ____ clinical sign in horses?

Laminitis

4

Hoary alyssum (bertoa incana) can cause ____ clinical signs in ____ species?

Laminitis and dependent edema in horses

5

Death Camas (Zygadenus spp) toxic principle and clinical signs?

Alkaloids zygacine causes vasodilation , hypotension, bradycardia, seizures, death

6

4 main cardiotoxic plants?

Taxus spp (yews) Digitalis (foxglove, oleander, lily of the valley, dogbane), Grayanotoxins (rhodadendrons, azaleas, heath), Trematone (Eupatorium/ White snake root)

7

Main toxic principle and clinical signs for milkweeds (Asclepias)?

Cardiac and GI signs; cardenolides (cardiac glycoside)

8

Main components of acid rain?

Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides

9

What size particulate matter lodges in nose/pharynx? What size lodges in lower airways?

PM10- nose; PM 2.5- lungs

10

Main toxin in Taxus spp and main clinical signs?

Alkaloids Taxine A and B; Cardiac and GI; sudden death

11

Main toxin in Persea americana (Avocado) and clinical signs?

Unknown toxin; cardiac (Horses, birds), SQ tissues, and mastitis... skin and seeds most toxic

12

5 plants causing hemolytic anemia?

Allium spp, Acer rubrum (red maple), Brassica spp, Melilotus officinalis (yellow sweet clover), Pteridium aquilinum (Bracken fern) in cattle esp

13

5 Plants that cause cyanide poisoning?

Wild cherry, choke cherry, Sorghum spp (Johnson grass, sudan grass), Arrograss, Elderberry

14

What color is blood in cyanide poisoning?

Cherry red

15

Toxic principle in moulded sweet clover hay?

Dicourmarol (anticoagulant)

16

4 Plants that cause methemoglobinemia?

Amaranthus spp (Pigweed,), Lambs quarters, Kochia spp (burning bush, fireweed), Sorghum spp (johnsongrass, sudan grass)

17

6 Plants that cause liver toxicosis?

Senicio, crotalaria, Cocklebur, Gossypol, alsike clover, Sago palms

18

5 Algae or mycotoxins that cause liver toxicosis?

Aflatoxin, fumonisin, sporodesmin, blue-green algae, amanita mushrooms

19

Senecio spp toxic principle and clinical signs?

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids and liver toxicosis (Hepatic insufficiency, HE, death)

20

Cockleburr (Xanthium spp) toxic principle and clinical signs?

Carboxytractyloside and hepatotoxic primarily in swine

21

Key species of blue-green Algae?

Microcystis and Anabena

22

2 Plants associated with photosensitization (primary)?

Buckwheat (Fagopyrum spp), St John’s wort (Hypericum)

23

4 Plants associated with nephrotoxicity?

Quercus spp (oaks), Amaranthus spp (redroot pigweed- swine), Lillium and Hemerocallis (lilies- cats),

24

5 Oxalate-containing plants?

Sorrel, dock, Amaranthus (pigweed), Rhubarb, Chenpodium album (Lamb’s quarters, greasewood, burning bush),

25

5 Plants with CNS signs?

Astralagus/Oxytroppis spp (locoweed), Yellow star thistle, Russian knapweed, Aesculus spp (Ohio buckeye), Morning glory seeds

26

5 Plants causing paresis/paralysis?

Larkspur (delphinium spp), macadamia nuts, Karwinskia (Coyotillo), Lathyrus spp (Vetches), Sorghum spp (horses- ataxia, urine dribbling)

27

Toxic principle locoweed and clinical signs?

Inhibits alpha mannosidase. Horses- ataxia; cattle/sheep: abortions, skeletal malformations

28

“Chewing disease” is caused by what?

Chronic ingestion of yellowstar thistle.

29

1ppm= ___mg/L?

1mg/L

30

Season where blue-green algae can be issue in freshwater sources?

Late summer early fall

31

For recreational waters and beaches, water quality is based on what two indicators?

Enterococcus and E. coli

32

Cause of blue baby syndrome?

Elevated nitrates in drinking water, which is converted to nitrites in the body and decreases oxygen carrying capacity of hemoglobin

33

Main concern with phosphorus in surface water?

Increases growth of algae and aquatic plants which consume all the oxygen

34

Lupine toxic principle and clinical signs?

Lupinine (alkaloid); crooked calf dz (cattle), neuro signs (horses, cattle, sheep)

35

Poison hemlock clinical signs?

Rapid neuro signs, death; subclinical dose can cause arthrogryposis in cattle

36

4 plants that cause seizures?

Water hemlock, milkweed, fitweed, dutchman’s breeches

37

3 plants that cause CNS depression?

Eupatoruim spp (White snakeroot), Isocoma wrightii (rayless goldenrod), Stipa robusta (sleepy grass)

38

4 Cholinergic blocking plants?

Datura stramonium (Jimson weed), Solanum spp (nightshades), Atropa belladonna (belladonna) Cestrum diurnum (Night blooming jessamine)

39

Toxic principle nightshades and clinical signs?

Solanine causes cholinesterase and GI irritation; ataxia, depression, GI signs

40

Who regulates disinfectants and antiseptics?

Disinfectants= EPA (used on inanimate things) Antiseptics = FDA (used on living things)

41

OSHA is part of what federal department? What about NIOSH

OSHA = dept of labor (regulatory/enforecement); NIOSH = Health and human services as part of CDC (research, advisement)

42

Aflatoxins clinical signs

p450 inhibitors; liver toxicosis in many species

43

What species is especially sensitive to carcinogenic properties of aflatoxins?

Trout get hepatocellular carcinomas.

44

Melamine combines with ____ to cause acute renal failure in cats

Cyanuric acid

45

Definition toxicant vs toxin?

Toxicant: any agent capable of producing a deleterious effect on a biological system.
Toxin: Poison that originates from biological processes

46

Definition threshold dose (toxins)?

Highest dose in which toxic signs are not seen

47

1ppm = ___ g/ton

0.91g/ton

48

Which plant can cause cyclops in sheep?

veratrum spp

49

What are effects of ground level ozone

Respiratory irritant and toxin, photosynthesis inhibitor

50

What are four common air pollutants associated with CAFOs?

Ammonia, H2S, methane, particulate matter

51

1ppm = ___ g/ton

0.91g/ton

52

Which plant can cause cyclops in sheep?

veratrum spp

53

Carbamate and organophosphate mechanism of action and clinical signs

Ach inhibitor; see SLUD signs, seizures, death

54

The PETS Act ammended the ____ act to include household pet in evacuation plans

Stafford Act

55

What are the four possible characteristics of hazardous waste?

Ignitability (flammable), Toxicity (fatal/harmful) , corrosivity (pH), Reactivity (explosive)

56

Which metal as found in the milk of dairy cattle
after feeding round bales used for
target practice?
a. Lead
b. Silver
c. Copper
d. Arsenic
e. mercury

A. Lead

57

Which metal causes bloody guts and is found in
highest levels in the kidney?
a. Lead
b. Silver
c. Copper
d. Arsenic
e. mercury

D. Arsenic

58

Which metal has highest levels in the brain an is an
environmental concern?
a. Lead
b. Silver
c. Copper
d. Arsenic
e. mercury

E. Mercury

59

Which metal has highest levels in the liver but
causes gunmetal kidneys in sheep?
a. Lead
b. Silver
c. Copper
d. Arsenic
e. mercury

C. Copper

60

Which metal made the blue man blue?
a. Lead
b. Silver
c. Copper
d. Arsenic
e. mercury

B. Silver

61

Most common source and clinical signs of lead poisoning in cattle?

Batteries and blindness/dullness

62

Most common source and clinical signs of GI signs in dogs?

lead paint & GI signs

63

Highest concentration of lead is in what organ?

Kidney, also liver

64

Common sources for arsenic?

Treated lumber (even ashes from burned lumber), weed killers, older green paint,

65

Common clinical signs of arsenic poisoning?

Sudden death, bloody guts

66

Which metal Is often found in high levels in chicken
litter and has resulted in toxic levels in
grazing animals?
a. Lead
b. Silver
c. Copper
d. Arsenic
e. mercury

C. Copper

67

Which metal causes hemolysis in
dogs & damages kidneys?

Zinc

68

Limberneck in birds and shaker foals in horses are caused by ____ toxin

Botulism

69

Moldy corn disease in horses caused by ___?

Fumonisin (horses most sensitive to brain/liver damage)

70

Chewing disease in ruminants is caused by ___?

yellow star thistle

71

Gas eye in chickens is caused by ___?

Elevated ammonia levels in chicken houses

72

"Milk sickness" in calves is caused by ___?

Mother's ingestion of white snakeroot (Trematone)- passed in milk

73

Crooked calf disease (arthrogryposis) is caused by ___?

Lupine ingestion during pregnancy

74

Aflatoxins cause what pathologic changes

Hepatotoxin

75

Zearalenone causes what clinical signs in swine?

Hyperestrogenism/prolapses associated with mold in corn

76

Slaframine mycotoxin causes what clinical signs?

Mycotoxin of red clover- causes intense salivation

77

Aflatoxin residues are found in what tissues?

Meat, milk (toxin M1)

78

Which toxin causes delayed pulmonary edema?

NO2 (silo filler's disease)

79

3 differentials for blind/circling calves (toxin focused)

Lead, Polioencephalomalacia (sulfur), water deprivation/salt tox)

80

What two plants can cause interstitial pneumonia in feedlot cattle?

Perilla mint, moldy sweet potatoes

81

What plant can cause granulomatous skin lesions in livestock?

Vetch

82

Mechanism of action for carbamates and organophosphates?

Overwhelm parasympathetic system

83

Antidote for nitrate?

Methylene blue

84

Antidote for lead in large animals?

Ca EDTA

85

Antidote for lead in small animals?

Succimer

86

Antidote for Cyanide?

Na Thiosulfate & nitrite

87

Antidote for antifreeze?

Ethanol, 4-methylpyrazole

88

Antidote for mercury?

BAL (chelator), succimer

89

Antidote for organophosphates or carbamates?

Atropine

90

Antidote for copper

D-penicillamine

91

Antidote for larkspur (glycoside)

Physostigmine

92

Mulberry heart disease in swine is caused by __?

Vit E/Selenium deficiency

93

White muscle disease caused by ___?

Vit E/Selenium deficiency

94

Ricketts caused by

Vit D deficiency

95

What are the four steps of Integrated Pest Management?

PAMS- prevention, avoidance, monitoring, suppression

96

Nitrates cause _____ which turns blood _____

Methemoglobinemia; Brown

97

Cyanide causes _____ which turns blood _____

Oxyhemoglobinemia; cherry red

98

Oak toxicity causes ____

GI signs & Kidney-perirenal edema

99

Locoweed causes ___

CNS, abortions, Alkali Disease, High mountain disease

100

Oleander causes ____

cardiotoxic

101

Brackenfern causes ____

Bladder cancer

102

Cocklebur causes ___

liver tox

103

Poison hemlock causes _____

CNS, stimulation then depression

104

Bermuda grass causes _____

Bermuda grass staggers

105

Water hemlock causes _____

Violent convulsions

106

Perilla mint causes ______

Interstitial pneumonia

107

Senna causes _____

Heart lesions

108

Broomweed, sumpweed, Locoweed, pine cause ___

Abortions

109

Dumbcane-Diffenbachia causes _____

Oral irritation and GI signs

110

Toxicity associated with feeding distiller's grain

Sulfur

111

Toxicity associated with ionophores

Cardiotoxic

112

Toxicity associated with cottonseed

Cardiotoxic

113

Toxicity associated with aflatoxin?

Hepatotoxic

114

Toxicity associated with fumoninsin

Hepatotoxic and neuro toxic

115

Toxicity associated with blister beetles

GI inflammation/sloughing

116

Most common carcinogenic effect of radiation?

Leukemia

117

Which type of (radiation) rays originate in the nucleus of an atom? And which from the electron shell?

gamma- nucleus; x-ray- electron shell

118

Louping ill is caused by ____?

tick-borne flavivirus (zoonotic- small ruminants and humans)

119

Fogging of mosquitoes controls which stage?

Adults only

120

under FIFRA, EPA must review registered pesticide safety info every ____ yrs?

15 years

121

Ixodes scapularis two common names

deer tick; black-legged tick

122

Amblyomma Americanum common name

Lone star tick

123

Tularemia and RMSF transmitted by what tick species?

Amblyomma amaricanum/lone star tick and Dermacentor variabilis/ brown dog tick

124

Dermacentor variabilis common names (2)

Brown dog tick, wood tick

125

Scrub typhus common name?

Tsutsugamushi disease

126

Scrub typhus cause and vector?

Orientia tsutsugamushi; Larval trombiculid mites

127

Cimex lectularius common name?

bed bug

128

Rat bite fever cause?

Streptobacillus moniliformis

129

Murine typhuys cause and vector?

Rickettsia typhi; fleas (Cheopsis)

130

Two fungal diseases from inhalating pigeon poop?

Histoplasmosis (histoplasma capsulatum) , Cryptococosis (Cryptococcus neoformans)

131

Causative agent white nose syndrome?

Pseudogymnoascus destructans

132

Radioactive cesium mimics ___ element and concentrates in _____ tissue

Mimics K; concentrates in muscle

133

Radioactive strontium mimics ____ element and concentrates in ____ tissues

mimics calcium; concentrates in bone

134

What are the five key modules of ICS?

Planning, Logistics, Finance, Operations, and Command

135

In ICS, what is optimal ratio of supervisor: subordinates

1: 5

136

Noise above ____ dBA for 8 hours is considered hazardous

85 dBA

137

External radiation exposure- what kind of particles/energy are most detrimental?

Gamma and xray

138

Internal radiation exposure- what kind of particles/energies are most detrimental?

Alpha and beta

139

Radon emits what sort of ionizing radiation?

Alpha particles

140

How are people most commonly exposed to dioxins?

Through contaminated animal products?

141

How are animals most commonly exposed to dioxins?

Through consumption of contaminated soils or vegetation

142

Primary result of hexavalent chromium exposure

lung cancer

143

1g/ton = ____ ppm

1.1 ppm

144

What species is affected if you have excess copper and deficiency in molybdenum?

Sheep

145

What species is affected if you have excess molybdenum and deficiency of copper?

Cattle

146

Which is more susceptible to urea toxicity- cattle or horses?

Cattle- Rumen bacteria contain urease, which breaks urea down into ammonia and non-protein nitrogen.

147

A cattle farmers has aflatoxin in corn- 40 ppm- action level is 20 ppm. What can farmer do to dispose of 50K bushels of corn?

If beef, dilute corn by half with clean product. If dairy, do not feed since aflatoxin concentrates in milk and FDA considers aflatoxins as adulterants

148

Farmer with brood mares, pasture is bad because of drought, has sorghum field, and wants advice on pasturing mares on sorghum.

1) sorghum tox = nitrate poisoning (methemoglobinemia)
2) plants concentrate nitrates during drought conditions
3) also contain glycosides that can cause late-term abortions or prolonged gestation in mares

149

What toxic plant causes pulmonary edema?

Perilla frutescen-common name is either beefsteak
plant or wild mint.

150

Silo filler's disease caused by

Nitrogen oxide inhalation

151

Which greenhouse gas causes most infrared trapping?

Water vapor (others = SO2, Cl, methane, NOx, SO2)