Flashcards in environmental health and tox Deck (151):
An Animal Feeding Operation by definition means you need to bring feed onto premises to feed animals for minimum of ___ days per year.
Toxic principle on Tall Fescue and clinical signs in what species?
Ergovaline alkaloids cause dry gangrene of digits, abdominal fat necrosis, agalactia in late gestation in horses and cattle
Black walnut (Juglans nigra) causes ____ clinical sign in horses?
Hoary alyssum (bertoa incana) can cause ____ clinical signs in ____ species?
Laminitis and dependent edema in horses
Death Camas (Zygadenus spp) toxic principle and clinical signs?
Alkaloids zygacine causes vasodilation , hypotension, bradycardia, seizures, death
4 main cardiotoxic plants?
Taxus spp (yews) Digitalis (foxglove, oleander, lily of the valley, dogbane), Grayanotoxins (rhodadendrons, azaleas, heath), Trematone (Eupatorium/ White snake root)
Main toxic principle and clinical signs for milkweeds (Asclepias)?
Cardiac and GI signs; cardenolides (cardiac glycoside)
Main components of acid rain?
Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides
What size particulate matter lodges in nose/pharynx? What size lodges in lower airways?
PM10- nose; PM 2.5- lungs
Main toxin in Taxus spp and main clinical signs?
Alkaloids Taxine A and B; Cardiac and GI; sudden death
Main toxin in Persea americana (Avocado) and clinical signs?
Unknown toxin; cardiac (Horses, birds), SQ tissues, and mastitis... skin and seeds most toxic
5 plants causing hemolytic anemia?
Allium spp, Acer rubrum (red maple), Brassica spp, Melilotus officinalis (yellow sweet clover), Pteridium aquilinum (Bracken fern) in cattle esp
5 Plants that cause cyanide poisoning?
Wild cherry, choke cherry, Sorghum spp (Johnson grass, sudan grass), Arrograss, Elderberry
What color is blood in cyanide poisoning?
Toxic principle in moulded sweet clover hay?
4 Plants that cause methemoglobinemia?
Amaranthus spp (Pigweed,), Lambs quarters, Kochia spp (burning bush, fireweed), Sorghum spp (johnsongrass, sudan grass)
6 Plants that cause liver toxicosis?
Senicio, crotalaria, Cocklebur, Gossypol, alsike clover, Sago palms
5 Algae or mycotoxins that cause liver toxicosis?
Aflatoxin, fumonisin, sporodesmin, blue-green algae, amanita mushrooms
Senecio spp toxic principle and clinical signs?
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids and liver toxicosis (Hepatic insufficiency, HE, death)
Cockleburr (Xanthium spp) toxic principle and clinical signs?
Carboxytractyloside and hepatotoxic primarily in swine
Key species of blue-green Algae?
Microcystis and Anabena
2 Plants associated with photosensitization (primary)?
Buckwheat (Fagopyrum spp), St John’s wort (Hypericum)
4 Plants associated with nephrotoxicity?
Quercus spp (oaks), Amaranthus spp (redroot pigweed- swine), Lillium and Hemerocallis (lilies- cats),
5 Oxalate-containing plants?
Sorrel, dock, Amaranthus (pigweed), Rhubarb, Chenpodium album (Lamb’s quarters, greasewood, burning bush),
5 Plants with CNS signs?
Astralagus/Oxytroppis spp (locoweed), Yellow star thistle, Russian knapweed, Aesculus spp (Ohio buckeye), Morning glory seeds
5 Plants causing paresis/paralysis?
Larkspur (delphinium spp), macadamia nuts, Karwinskia (Coyotillo), Lathyrus spp (Vetches), Sorghum spp (horses- ataxia, urine dribbling)
Toxic principle locoweed and clinical signs?
Inhibits alpha mannosidase. Horses- ataxia; cattle/sheep: abortions, skeletal malformations
“Chewing disease” is caused by what?
Chronic ingestion of yellowstar thistle.
Season where blue-green algae can be issue in freshwater sources?
Late summer early fall
For recreational waters and beaches, water quality is based on what two indicators?
Enterococcus and E. coli
Cause of blue baby syndrome?
Elevated nitrates in drinking water, which is converted to nitrites in the body and decreases oxygen carrying capacity of hemoglobin
Main concern with phosphorus in surface water?
Increases growth of algae and aquatic plants which consume all the oxygen
Lupine toxic principle and clinical signs?
Lupinine (alkaloid); crooked calf dz (cattle), neuro signs (horses, cattle, sheep)
Poison hemlock clinical signs?
Rapid neuro signs, death; subclinical dose can cause arthrogryposis in cattle
4 plants that cause seizures?
Water hemlock, milkweed, fitweed, dutchman’s breeches
3 plants that cause CNS depression?
Eupatoruim spp (White snakeroot), Isocoma wrightii (rayless goldenrod), Stipa robusta (sleepy grass)
4 Cholinergic blocking plants?
Datura stramonium (Jimson weed), Solanum spp (nightshades), Atropa belladonna (belladonna) Cestrum diurnum (Night blooming jessamine)
Toxic principle nightshades and clinical signs?
Solanine causes cholinesterase and GI irritation; ataxia, depression, GI signs
Who regulates disinfectants and antiseptics?
Disinfectants= EPA (used on inanimate things) Antiseptics = FDA (used on living things)
OSHA is part of what federal department? What about NIOSH
OSHA = dept of labor (regulatory/enforecement); NIOSH = Health and human services as part of CDC (research, advisement)
Aflatoxins clinical signs
p450 inhibitors; liver toxicosis in many species
What species is especially sensitive to carcinogenic properties of aflatoxins?
Trout get hepatocellular carcinomas.
Melamine combines with ____ to cause acute renal failure in cats
Definition toxicant vs toxin?
Toxicant: any agent capable of producing a deleterious effect on a biological system.
Toxin: Poison that originates from biological processes
Definition threshold dose (toxins)?
Highest dose in which toxic signs are not seen
1ppm = ___ g/ton
Which plant can cause cyclops in sheep?
What are effects of ground level ozone
Respiratory irritant and toxin, photosynthesis inhibitor
What are four common air pollutants associated with CAFOs?
Ammonia, H2S, methane, particulate matter
1ppm = ___ g/ton
Which plant can cause cyclops in sheep?
Carbamate and organophosphate mechanism of action and clinical signs
Ach inhibitor; see SLUD signs, seizures, death
The PETS Act ammended the ____ act to include household pet in evacuation plans
What are the four possible characteristics of hazardous waste?
Ignitability (flammable), Toxicity (fatal/harmful) , corrosivity (pH), Reactivity (explosive)
Which metal as found in the milk of dairy cattle
after feeding round bales used for
Which metal causes bloody guts and is found in
highest levels in the kidney?
Which metal has highest levels in the brain an is an
Which metal has highest levels in the liver but
causes gunmetal kidneys in sheep?
Which metal made the blue man blue?
Most common source and clinical signs of lead poisoning in cattle?
Batteries and blindness/dullness
Most common source and clinical signs of GI signs in dogs?
lead paint & GI signs
Highest concentration of lead is in what organ?
Kidney, also liver
Common sources for arsenic?
Treated lumber (even ashes from burned lumber), weed killers, older green paint,
Common clinical signs of arsenic poisoning?
Sudden death, bloody guts
Which metal Is often found in high levels in chicken
litter and has resulted in toxic levels in
Which metal causes hemolysis in
dogs & damages kidneys?
Limberneck in birds and shaker foals in horses are caused by ____ toxin
Moldy corn disease in horses caused by ___?
Fumonisin (horses most sensitive to brain/liver damage)
Chewing disease in ruminants is caused by ___?
yellow star thistle
Gas eye in chickens is caused by ___?
Elevated ammonia levels in chicken houses
"Milk sickness" in calves is caused by ___?
Mother's ingestion of white snakeroot (Trematone)- passed in milk
Crooked calf disease (arthrogryposis) is caused by ___?
Lupine ingestion during pregnancy
Aflatoxins cause what pathologic changes
Zearalenone causes what clinical signs in swine?
Hyperestrogenism/prolapses associated with mold in corn
Slaframine mycotoxin causes what clinical signs?
Mycotoxin of red clover- causes intense salivation
Aflatoxin residues are found in what tissues?
Meat, milk (toxin M1)
Which toxin causes delayed pulmonary edema?
NO2 (silo filler's disease)
3 differentials for blind/circling calves (toxin focused)
Lead, Polioencephalomalacia (sulfur), water deprivation/salt tox)
What two plants can cause interstitial pneumonia in feedlot cattle?
Perilla mint, moldy sweet potatoes
What plant can cause granulomatous skin lesions in livestock?
Mechanism of action for carbamates and organophosphates?
Overwhelm parasympathetic system
Antidote for nitrate?
Antidote for lead in large animals?
Antidote for lead in small animals?
Antidote for Cyanide?
Na Thiosulfate & nitrite
Antidote for antifreeze?
Antidote for mercury?
BAL (chelator), succimer
Antidote for organophosphates or carbamates?
Antidote for copper
Antidote for larkspur (glycoside)
Mulberry heart disease in swine is caused by __?
Vit E/Selenium deficiency
White muscle disease caused by ___?
Vit E/Selenium deficiency
Ricketts caused by
Vit D deficiency
What are the four steps of Integrated Pest Management?
PAMS- prevention, avoidance, monitoring, suppression
Nitrates cause _____ which turns blood _____
Cyanide causes _____ which turns blood _____
Oxyhemoglobinemia; cherry red
Oak toxicity causes ____
GI signs & Kidney-perirenal edema
Locoweed causes ___
CNS, abortions, Alkali Disease, High mountain disease
Oleander causes ____
Brackenfern causes ____
Cocklebur causes ___
Poison hemlock causes _____
CNS, stimulation then depression
Bermuda grass causes _____
Bermuda grass staggers
Water hemlock causes _____
Perilla mint causes ______
Senna causes _____
Broomweed, sumpweed, Locoweed, pine cause ___
Dumbcane-Diffenbachia causes _____
Oral irritation and GI signs
Toxicity associated with feeding distiller's grain
Toxicity associated with ionophores
Toxicity associated with cottonseed
Toxicity associated with aflatoxin?
Toxicity associated with fumoninsin
Hepatotoxic and neuro toxic
Toxicity associated with blister beetles
Most common carcinogenic effect of radiation?
Which type of (radiation) rays originate in the nucleus of an atom? And which from the electron shell?
gamma- nucleus; x-ray- electron shell
Louping ill is caused by ____?
tick-borne flavivirus (zoonotic- small ruminants and humans)
Fogging of mosquitoes controls which stage?
under FIFRA, EPA must review registered pesticide safety info every ____ yrs?
Ixodes scapularis two common names
deer tick; black-legged tick
Amblyomma Americanum common name
Lone star tick
Tularemia and RMSF transmitted by what tick species?
Amblyomma amaricanum/lone star tick and Dermacentor variabilis/ brown dog tick
Dermacentor variabilis common names (2)
Brown dog tick, wood tick
Scrub typhus common name?
Scrub typhus cause and vector?
Orientia tsutsugamushi; Larval trombiculid mites
Cimex lectularius common name?
Rat bite fever cause?
Murine typhuys cause and vector?
Rickettsia typhi; fleas (Cheopsis)
Two fungal diseases from inhalating pigeon poop?
Histoplasmosis (histoplasma capsulatum) , Cryptococosis (Cryptococcus neoformans)
Causative agent white nose syndrome?
Radioactive cesium mimics ___ element and concentrates in _____ tissue
Mimics K; concentrates in muscle
Radioactive strontium mimics ____ element and concentrates in ____ tissues
mimics calcium; concentrates in bone
What are the five key modules of ICS?
Planning, Logistics, Finance, Operations, and Command
In ICS, what is optimal ratio of supervisor: subordinates
Noise above ____ dBA for 8 hours is considered hazardous
External radiation exposure- what kind of particles/energy are most detrimental?
Gamma and xray
Internal radiation exposure- what kind of particles/energies are most detrimental?
Alpha and beta
Radon emits what sort of ionizing radiation?
How are people most commonly exposed to dioxins?
Through contaminated animal products?
How are animals most commonly exposed to dioxins?
Through consumption of contaminated soils or vegetation
Primary result of hexavalent chromium exposure
1g/ton = ____ ppm
What species is affected if you have excess copper and deficiency in molybdenum?
What species is affected if you have excess molybdenum and deficiency of copper?
Which is more susceptible to urea toxicity- cattle or horses?
Cattle- Rumen bacteria contain urease, which breaks urea down into ammonia and non-protein nitrogen.
A cattle farmers has aflatoxin in corn- 40 ppm- action level is 20 ppm. What can farmer do to dispose of 50K bushels of corn?
If beef, dilute corn by half with clean product. If dairy, do not feed since aflatoxin concentrates in milk and FDA considers aflatoxins as adulterants
Farmer with brood mares, pasture is bad because of drought, has sorghum field, and wants advice on pasturing mares on sorghum.
1) sorghum tox = nitrate poisoning (methemoglobinemia)
2) plants concentrate nitrates during drought conditions
3) also contain glycosides that can cause late-term abortions or prolonged gestation in mares
What toxic plant causes pulmonary edema?
Perilla frutescen-common name is either beefsteak
plant or wild mint.
Silo filler's disease caused by
Nitrogen oxide inhalation