Flashcards in Food Safety Deck (72):
Typhoid fever is caused by ____
Non-typhoidal salmonella is caused by _____
Type of foodborne illness: Bacillus cereus
c. toxin-mediated (produced in body)
B. toxin ingest (spore-former)
Type of foodborne illness: Staph aureus
c. toxin-mediated( produced in body)
B. toxin ingest (and enterotoxin stable at boiling temps!)
Type of foodborne illness: Clostridium perfringens
c. toxin -mediated( produced in body)
C. toxin-mediated (produced in body)
Type of foodborne illness: E. coli 0157:H7
c. toxin -mediated( produced in body)
C. Toxin-mediated (produced in body) Enterotoxigenic SHIGATOXIN
Ciguatoxins found in ___ species
Marine fin fish
Saxitoxins found in ___ species
Clams, mussels, oysters, crabs
Histamine toxin found in ___ marine species
Scromboid poisoning from poorly refrigerated tuna, mackerel
Who is allowed to pass/condemn carcasses pulled for re-inspection at an FSIS plan?
Livestock: FSIS vet only
Poultry: Trained FSIS inspector or vet
What are the four main themes of FSMA?
Prevention, Import Safety, Enhanced Partnerships, and Inspections/Compliance/Response
The toxin of Clostridium botulinum can be removed from most foods by:
The value of salt as a meat curing agent has been demonstrated to be due to its:
a. bactericidal action.
b. drying properties.
c. inhibitory action.
d. enzyme system destruction.
e. ability to combine with proteins.
B or D- salt sucks the water out of cells
The correct disposition of a bovine tuberculosis reactor without visible lesions of tuberculosis is to:
a. pass for cooking.
b. pass without restriction.
c. condemn the carcass and viscera.
d. condemn the viscera only.
e. allow use for pet, fur-bearer or fish food only.
A. pass for cooking
The ionizing radiation used to preserve foods is:
a. cosmic rays.
b. alpha rays.
d. gamma rays.
e. beta rays.
D. Gamma (x-rays used less commonly as well)
The three genera most frequently documented as causative agents of human bacterial origin food borne illness in the U.S. are:
a. Streptococcus, Bacillus, and Salmonella.
b. Salmonella, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus.
c. Staphylococcus, Campylobacter and Salmonella.
d. Shigella, Staphylococcus and Salmonella.
e. Staphylococcus, Salmonella and Bacillus.
Clostridium botulinum Type E has been demonstrated to have a particularly close association with:
a. pork and pork products.
b. cooked beef and gravy.
c. fish and fish products.
d. poultry and poultry products.
e. home canned vegetables.
A change in product content or manufacturing process that may inhibit nitrosamine formation in cured meat products is to:
a. increase erythrorbate or ascorbate levels in the finished product .
b. reduce ingoing nitrite level to 170 ppm.
c. increase nitrate levels in the curing solution.
d. use spice-nitrate premixes.
e. stabilize the residual nitrite maximum level to 200 pp, in finished product.
A. (nitrosamine is carcinogenic and formed from nitrites; ascorbic acid inhibits nitrosamine formation)
The pasteurization temperature/times established by the USPHS milk ordinance and code are keyed to the conditions necessary to destroy the organisms of:
a. Coxiella burnetti.
b. Foot and Mouth Disease.
c. Clostridium botulinum.
e. Escherichia coli.
A friend who dined at a seafood restaurant three hours ago calls to describe experiencing a strange tingling and numbness of the lips, tongue, and fingertips. These symptoms suggest an etiological agent of:
a. scrombotoxin or cigautoxin.
b. tetrodotoxin or saxitoxin.
c. mullet toxicosis.
d. Clostridium botulinum Type E toxin.
e. oyster poisoning.
The microorganism most resistant to destruction by ionizing radiation is:
a. PA 3679 spores.
b. Clostridium botulinum spores.
c. Salmonella spp.
d. Clostridium perfringens spores.
e. Bacillus anthracis spores.
The microorganism frequently associated with human food borne illness that is capable of growth in salt concentrations as high as 10% is:
a. Staphylococcus aureus
b. Vibrio parahemolyticus
c. Bacillus cereus
d. Clostridium botulinum
e. Clostridium perfringens
Food borne staphylococcal illness results from the ingestion of preformed:
Seafood consumption has been documented to be a source of the following disease in humans:
a. cholera and typhoid
b. schistosomiasis and mycoplasmosis
c. toxoplasmosis and mycotoxicosis
d. tuberculosis and anthracosis
e. anthrax and tetanus
A positive phosphatase test on ice cream could indicate:
a. improper pasteurization
b. high bacterial count
c. reactivated phosphatase
d. false-positive test caused by ingredients
e. All of the above
Sour spots in cured ham often are the result of:
a. insufficient rapid cooling of the ham
b. failure of the curing agent to penetrate all parts of the ham
c. curing "stale" meat
d. penetration of the product by molds before curing
e. abnormal amounts of muscle pigment
A fungal disease often confused with Tuberculosis and Actinobacillosis on postmortem is:
d. caseous lymphadenitis
Thin-layer chromatography is a laboratory procedure used to:
a. determine if milk has been properly pasteurized
b. identify individual species of salmonella
c. separate chemical residues extracted from foods
d. identify Clostridium botulinum toxin
e. identify the species origin of meat
Grade A milk that consistently shows bacteria counts in excess of the legally acceptable maximum should be:
a. rerouted to another area of the state
b. condemned at the point of production
c. degraded for use in manufactured milk products
d. pasteurized to reduce the bacteria count below the legal maximum
Which of the following is NOT a factor of the extent to which fat is incorporated into a stable emulsion?
b. fat particle size
c. amount and type of soluble protein
d. amount of emulsion
e. emulsion viscosity
Which of the following is NOT a result of exsanguination?
a. Peripheral blood vessels expand
b. Energy is produced anaerobically
c. Lactic acid accumulates
d. The pH in the muscle is lowered
e. Muscle temperature rises
E.coli produces two types of shigatoxin. Which is more powerful?
Most susceptible population for hepE mortality?
Which hepatitis types can become chronic?
B, C, D
Vibrio parahemolyticus is most commonly linked to consumption of what species?
According to FDA Bad bug book, what is the most commonly acquired laboratory infection?
Cronobacter spp (formerly Enterob acter sakazakii) is most commonly linked to consumption of what type of food?
Powdered infant formula
Which type of E.coli is most likely the cause of travelers diarrhea?
Pig-bel disease is caused by what pathogen?
Clostridium perfringens (aka enteritis necroticans)
B.cereus can grow at ___ temp and ___ salt concentration?
4 F and 7.5% salt
Top 5 foods contaminated with aflatoxin?
Peanuts/peanut butter, tree nuts, corn, wheat, oil seeds like cottonseed
Main health concern with aflaxotins?
Main health concern with dioxins?
Main health concern with PCBs?
What is the allowable tolerance level for dioxins in animal feed?
What is the allowable tolerance level for PCBs in animal feed?
Temporary allowances only
Main health concern with fumonisins in animals?
Leukoencephalomalacia in horses; pulmonary edema in pigs
Top food contaminated with fumoninsins?
List the steps in developing a HACCP plan.
Conduct hazard analysis- ID critical control point- - Establish Critical limits @ control point- Establish monitoring system—Establish corrective actions—Establish recordkeeping plan—Establish verification system
Murine typhus, aka _____ is caused by ____ and is transmitted by ____?
Aka typhus group rickettsiosis; caused by Rikettsia typhi, transmitted by fleas
Low-acid foods mean pH above ___ and should be only canned using ___ system
above 4.6; using pressure canning system
Which botulism toxins are most common in people
Which botulism toxins are most common in birds?
C, then D
Which botulism toxins are most common in horses?
Which botulism toxins are most common in livestock species
D and C
The color of meat is determined by what molecule in fresh meat?
The color of meat is determiuned by what molecule in dry cured meat
Nitrosylmyoglobin and metmyoglobin
At what temperature should livestock species be condemned?
105 all animals; swine @ 106
What are specified risk materials for slaughtered cattle that cannot enter the food chain?
Brain, skull, eyes, trigeminal ganglia, spinal cord, vertebral column, dorsal root ganglia of cattle 30 mo or older; also distal ileum and and tonsils of all cattle.
Define food defense
Protecting a food supply from intentional chemical, physical, or biological adulteration by someone with the intent to do harm.
True or False: The HACCP plan mandated by FSIS to be developed for each slaughter or processing facility and the Food Defense Plan can be used interchangeably at the plant-level.
False. The HACCP plan is intended to promote food safety, while the defense plan promotes food defense. While they may be similar, they will likely not have all the same critical control points. Additionally, the HACCP is mandatory; developing a functional food defense plan is voluntary.
Which of the following measures may be used as part of a Functional Food Defense Plan at a slaughter plant?
b. Employee background checks
c. Employees FIRST
d. A and B
e. A, B, and C
E- all of above
Which of the following is NOT an intermediate or end product of aerobic metabolism?
b. Carbon dioxide
c. Pyruvic acid
e. Lactic acid
Which of the following is most indicative of anaerobic spoilage in meat?
a. Gray color.
c. Slime formation.
d. Sticky meat surface.
e. Growth of powdery colonies.
If the source of a food-related illness was determined to be potato salad, which of the following would be the most likely cause?
a. Clostridium perfringens food poisoning
b. Staphylococcal food poisoning
e. Streptococcus faecalis food poisoning
The expression equal to 72 parts per million is:
a. 0.072 mg/kg
b. 7.2 ug/100ml
c. 7.2 ug/mg
d. 7.2 lb/ton
e. 72.0 mg/kg
5. Strontium-90 and Iodine-131 from nuclear weapons fallout are an especially important public health problem primarily for man because they:
a. May be inhaled in fine particulates from the fallout cloud.
b. May cause radiation burns on exposed skin.
c. Have long biological half-lives and concentrate in critical radiosensitive organs.
d. May be ingested in large amounts by consumption of dairy products and foods of plant origin.
e. Accumulate in the thyroid gland
Which of the following statements concerning epithelioma of the bovine eye is correct?
a. Metastasis from the eye to the corresponding parotid lymph node requires condemnation of the carcass
b. The eye and its corresponding parotid lymph node may be involved without carcass condemnation
c. It the osseous structure of the head is affected with necrosis, the carcass would not be condemned unless there is evidence of metastasis to the internal organs
d. Neoplasm is classified as a squamous cell carcinoma
e. Never requires antemortem inspection of the animal
The type of Clostridium botulinum most commonly associated with seafood products is:
An investigation of an outbreak of food borne illness reveals the average interval between the consumption of food and onset of illness to be three hours. Which of the following might be suspected?
a. Staphylococcal food poisoning
b. Sodium fluoride food poisoning
The greenish color associated with certain meat items may be caused by:
a. Microbial deterioration
b. Chemical deterioration of myoglobin
c. The addition of sodium bisulfite
d. A and B above
e. None of the above