Infectious diseases Flashcards Preview

Facts based on ISU course > Infectious diseases > Flashcards

Flashcards in Infectious diseases Deck (185):
1

Clostridium botulinum types __ and __ affect birds; type ___ affects humans

C and E
E

2

What is the effective brucella vaccine for wild cervids

There is no effective vaccine

3

At what age should wild cervids begin testing for CWD

12 months of age

4

Which federal agency has jurisdiction over game meat and farmed cervids

FDA

5

Avian cholera is caused by ____; which is often introduced to poultry by ____.

pasturella; rodents

6

_____ is the primary test for TB in cattle; _____ is the primary test for TB in captive cervids

Caudal fold
Single Cervical

7

Contagious Equine Metritis (CEM) causes _(clinical signs)__ in mares and __(clinical signs)___ in stallions

Short-term infertility and vulvar discharge
No clinical signs; acts as a commensal bacteria

8

Causal agent of CEM

Taylorella equigenitalis

9

Modes of transmission for CEM

1) direct or indirect venereal contact
2) transplacental or contact with birth tissues
3) Fomites

10

How to test for CEM in carrier mares? In stallions?

1) Swab clitoral sinuses/fossa (can be intermittent shedders)- some positives are serologically negative
2) Ideal is to breed to two mares then test them; less ideal swab penis/urethra (culture/cytology)- males always seronegative

11

Causative agent Equine Piroplasmosis

Babesia (Theileria) equi
Babesia caballi

12

Equine piroplasmosis transmitted by ____

Ticks (Dermacentor variabilis and Boophilus microplus)
Shared blood/needles

13

The reservoir species for Babesia (Theileria) equi is ____; the reserveroir species for Babesia caballi is ____

Horses;
Horses and ticks (transovarial transmission)

14

Best ways to prevent equine piroplasmosis (3)

- Acaricides (needs tick vector)
- Need adequate number of infected horses in an area to support disease transmission
- Don't reuse needles/blood products

15

Clinical signs equine piroplasmosis

Anemia, fever, jaundice, dark urine, lethargy, exercise intolerance (mild to severe)

16

What is the risk for food poisoning from MRSA strains?

Low/none; they aren't enterotoxin producing staph aureus strains

17

What are the ten steps of an outbreak investigation

1. Determine the existence of the outbreak
2. Confirm the diagnosis
3. Define a case and count cases
4. Orient the data in terms of time, place, and person
5. Determine who is at risk of becoming ill
6. Develop a hypothesis that explains the exposure that caused disease and test this hypothesis
7. Compare the hypothesis with the established facts
8. Plan a more systematic study
9. Prepare a written report
10. Execute control and prevention measures

18

CWD transmissision routes?

Feces, urine, saliva

19

Offical tests for CWD herd surveillance?

(gold standard) Immunohistochemistry of obex or retropharyngeal LNs
or
Rapid ELISA of obex or retropharyngeal LNs

20

Within the CFR, standards can be written as "design standards" or "performance standards". What is the difference?

Design standards are very specific and require rulemaking to change, eg "ramps must be 36 inches wide and no more than 15 degree slope" (how-to is within CFR)

Performance standards are more vague in execution allowing flexibility over time, eg "ramps must be of sufficient size to allow free passage by livestock without touching any side" (how-to is in guidance documents)

21

Primary mode of transmission for :
Brucella abortis
B. mellitensis
B. suis
B. canis

1. Ingestion/tonsils/retropharyngeal LNs
2. sexual
3. sexual
4. sexual

22

Reservoir species for brucella in USA?

Feral swine
Elk/Bison in Greater Yellowstone area

23

Human modes of infection with brucella in US?

Hunting feral swine, illegally imported dairy products, less often contact with aborted tissues, foreign exposures

24

Birds have ___ type receptors for influenza viruses
Humans have ___ type receptors
Swine have ___ type receptors

Birds= 2, 3'-sialyllactose
Humans = 2, 6'-sialyl N-acetyllactosamine
Swine = both α-2, 3 and α-2, 6 sialic acid receptor sites (that's why they're mixing pots)

25

three conditions for a global influenza pandemic

1. A new subtype of influenza A virus is introduced into
the human population.
2. Virus causes serious disease in humans
3. The virus can spread easily from person-to-person
in a sustained manner.

26

Appropriate manners to decontaminate prion properties (such as CWD)?

Physical: Irradiation, dry heat, autoclave
Chemical: currently no EPA-approved but some may work
Infected carcass: only alkaline hydrolysis inactivates completely

27

Equine Herpesvirus Myeloencephalopathy (EHM) is caused by ____

Equine HerpesVirus-1 (but not all EHV-1 causes the neuro form)

28

Primary forms of EHV in horses are __ and ___

EHV-1 and EHV-4

29

Modes of transmission for EHV in horses?

Inhalation, contact with aborted tissues

30

Vaccines against EHV protect against __ form(s) of disease but not ___ form(s)

Protect against respiratory and abortion signs but not neuro signs

31

Vaccinate livestock against anthrax using _____; vaccinate people using ______

Modified live (Sterne's)
Cell-free filtrate

32

How to diagnose anthrax?

Culture lesions, blood,

33

How to tx anthrax?

Cipro, doxycycline, penicillin

34

Common name for brucellosis?

Undulent fever

35

Common name for botulisum in birds?

Limber neck

36

Three forms of human plague

Bubonic, pneumonic, septicemic

37

Oral rabies bait exists for which wildlife species in US?

Raccoon, fox

38

Vector species for tularemia?

Ticks (Dermacentor, Amblyomma)
Flies (Deer fly)

39

Three forms of human tularemia

Ulceroglandular, Typhoidal, Pneumonic (less likely ocular in children)

40

Prevention strategies for tularemia (4)

Insect repellent
PPE for skinning wildlife
Cook game meat thoroughly
Avoid contaminated drinking/swimming water

41

Vectors for WNV?

Mosquitoes: Culex pipiens (night feeder), Aedes aegypti (day feeder)
Ticks: Argasid (soft), amblyommine (hard)
Flies: Hippoboscid flies (flat flies)

42

Trichinella larvae in meat can be killed by __ or __ but not ___ or ___

Cooking or freezing
Salting or curing

43

Testing for hantavirus in human cases is ____ or ____; or if deceased ____

IgM +/- IgG (most commonly) or PCR
IHC if deceased

44

Transmission of Schmallenberg virus is via____

Culicoides midges; maternal-fetal, infected aborted tissues, also isolated in bovine semen (experimental)

45

Clinical signs Schmallenberg in cattle is ____. Sheep/goats is ______.

cattle: fever, reduced milk yield, teratogenic abortions;
sheep/goats- minimal signs in adults, arthrogryposis
and hydranencephaly syndrome (AHS) in fetus/lamb/kid

46

Prevention strategy for Schmallenberg virus

Alter breeding schedule so that pregnancy doesn't coincide with culicoides activity

47

Chagas caused by ___ with ___ vector

Trypanosoma cruzi; Triatomine bug vector (Reduviidae)

48

Host species for Chagas

Opossums, skunks, raccoons, coyotes rodents
Disease in humans and dogs

49

Route of transmission for Chagas

- Wound contamination by bug feces
- Ingestion of infected vector (eg dogs eat bugs) or infected wild mammal
- Ingestion of contaminated food or drink (eg fruit juices with bug feces in it)
- Congenital (mother to offspring)
- Blood-borne (most NA blood banks screen for T.cruzi)
- Trans-mammary
- Organ transplant

50

Diagnosis of Chagas in canines

IFA is gold standard (Ab detection); histopath of heart or ID of parasite on blood smear.

Some PCR available

51

Lone star tick = (species)

Amblyomma americanum

52

Deer tick = (common name, species)

Black legged tick aka Ixodes scapularis

53

Brown dog tick = (common name, species)

Wood tick; Dermacentor variabilis

54

Four zoonoses associated with black legged tick/deer tick/Ixodes scapularis

Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi), Powassan disease virus, Anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum), Babesiosis (Babesia microti)

55

Most Lyme transmission comes from ___ tick stage

Nymph stage. No transovarial transmission, so larvae stage not infected; adults are more likely to be spotted and removed.

56

Three lone star tick (Amblyomma americanum) zoonoses:

Ehrlichiosis, STARI (Southern tick associated rash illness- ethiology unknown), Heartland virus

57

Main reservoir species for Ehrlichiosis all stages

White tail deer (less often dogs, coyotes, goats, raccoons)

58

Cytologic ID of Ehrlichia by ___

Morulae in neutrophils on blood smear

59

In human cases of WNV, __% have no symptoms; ___% have west nile fever, and __% have West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND)

80% asymptomatic
20% fever
< 1% meningitis, encephalitis

60

WNV fatality rate in horses?

30-40% (neuro signs, ataxia, circling, etc)

61

Symptoms of EEE and case fatality rate in horses?

over 90% fatal; early fever, anorexia progress to neuro signs

62

The incidence of WNV tends to affect the _____ ages while EEE tends to affect the ____ ages

WNV- elderly;
EEE- very young and very old

63

After issuing a Veterinary Feed Directive, the vet must keep record of forms for ___ (time)___

2 years

64

Dengue virus immunity is ____

lifelong to specific subtype infected with only

65

Vector for dengue and Chikungunya virus

Aedes aegypti and albopictus

66

Common name for anthrax?

Wool sorter's disease

67

Robert Koch used ____ bacteria to prove Koch's postulates

Bacillus anthracis

68

Historically, Leptospira serovars ___ and ___ were most important in canine species, but now serovars ____ are emerging

Historical: L. canicola and L. icterohemorrhagiae
Emerging: L. pomona, L. grippotyphosa, L. autumnalis, L. bratislava

69

Lepto transmisssion routes

Contact with infected water, soil, urine, feces through abraded skin or mucous membranes,
direct ingestion, transplacental, bite wounds, venereal

70

Generally each lepto serovar has maintainence host species that (does/does not) cause illness in that species

Usually asymptomatic however can become ill

71

Reservoir species for L. icterohemorrhagiae

rat

72

Reservoir species for L. canicola

Dog

73

Reservoir species for L. pomona

Cow, swine, skunk, possum

74

Reservoir species for L. grippotyphosa

Vole, raccoon, skunk, opossum

75

Reservoir species for L. bratislava

Rat, pig, horse

76

Reservoir species for L. autumnalis

Swine, mouse

77

Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV) routes of transmission

fecal-oral

78

PED causes highest mortality in what age group of pigs?

Babies under 4 wk of age (up to 100% mortality); in older animals, vomiting and diarrhea lose some condition and drop in reproduction

79

Potential routes of transmission MERS?

Camel contact (respiratory, meat, milk), nosocomial, close aerosol contact

80

MERS shedding in camels is highest in what time/age

Young <2yr animals and during spring breeding season

81

Most susceptible species to vesicular stomatitis virus?

Horses, cattle, swine; less often sheep, coats, camelids,

82

Clinical signs VS

Oral vesicles (drooling, not eating); lameness/coronary band lesions, mastitis in dairy cows

83

Rule-outs for vesicular lesions in cattle

VS, FMD, bluetongue, Mucosal BVD, Epizootic Hemorrhagic disease, chemical injury, trauma

84

VS routes of transmission

Biting flies, direct contact with ruptured vesicles, contact with recently infected fomites

85

Clinical signs of VS in people; route of transmission

Malaise, high fever, results from direct contact with lesions or snorting/sneezing on person during PE

86

Swine brucellosis mechanisms of transmission?

Ingestion of infected birth/abortion tissues, semen, urine of swine, milk of B.suis infected cattle

87

Clinical signs of Brucella suis in swine? In horses?

Swine: Abortion, epididymitis/orchitis, weak piglets, swollen joints, infertility
Horses: Fistulous withers

88

Brucella suis cross reacts with what pathogen on serology

Yersinia enterocolitica

89

Definitive diagnosis Brucella suis?

Culture tissues @ necropsy: Repro organs, lymph nodes, spleen, liver

90

The Market Swine Test (MST) tests _____ for Brucella suis

culled breeding animals at slaughter

91

Reservoir for swine brucellosis in the US?

Feral swine

92

Swine Brucellosis is zoonotic. What categories of people are most at risk

Slaughter workers; feral swine hunters, swine producers, veterinarians

93

Routes of transmission for tularemia

Direct contact with infected animals, aerosols, inoculation into wounds, contaminated food/water, tick/fly-borne, lab exposure

94

Acute tularemia patients (animal/human) serology is negative until ____ time

2-4 weeks post-infection

95

Colorado Tick Fever is causative agent?

Colorado tick fever virus (reoviridae)

96

Vector for colorado tick fever?

Dermacentor andersonii (Rocky Mountain wood tick)

97

Brucella vaccination in cattle can prevent

Abortion but may not always prevent infection (large exposure may overwhelm vaccine immunity)

98

What strain of brucella is considered most virulent

Brucella mellitensis

99

Brucella RB51 vaccine (does/does not) produce antibodies that cross-react with wild-type infection on screening tests

Does not (no antibodies produced)

100

Vaccinating calves against brucella must be done when they are ___ age

between 4 and 12 months of age

101

Two common names for brucellosis in cattle? In people?

Bang's disease or contagious abortion in cattle
Undulant fever or Malta fever in people

102

Reindeer are most likely to get which species of brucella?

B. suis

103

Which two brucella species cross-react on tests due to their rough colony formation

B. canis and B. ovis

104

Clinical signs of chronic chagas

Cardiac arrythmias, congestive failure, DCM

105

Two common names for coccidiomycosis

Cocci or valley fever

106

Geographic distribution for coccidiomycosis?

California and SW US

107

Geographic distribution for blastomycosis?

East of Mississippi

108

Routes of transmission coccidioidomycosis

Primarily inhalation, less often contact with birthing fluids, contact with disseminated disease, organ transplants

109

Clinical signs acute coccidiodomycosis?

Pulmonary granuloma, fever, rash (erythema), lethargy, malaise,

110

Populations at increased risk for coccidiodomycosis?

Within geographic area of California and SW USA, immunocompromised individuals (HIV patients, transplant recipients, pregnant women, people on steroids, lymphoma patients), with some genetic predilection for severe disease in African American and Asian persons

111

Reservoir species Cryptosporidium hominis? C. parvum?

Hominis: human only
Parvum: humans and mammals (including ruminants)

112

Mechanisms to disinfect water supply from Crypto?

Heat (pasteurization), filtration; less successful: UV or ozone

113

Geographic distribution of Coxiella?

Global, except not in New Zealand

114

most common mosquito vector for viral encephalites (WEE/VEE/EEE/SLE)

Culex spp

115

Which of the following cause disease in horses?
a. WEE
b. VEE
c. EEE
d. WNV
e. SLE
f. LAC

a-d only

116

What is the amplifying host species for LaCrosse Encephalitis Virus

Chipmunks and small mammals (humans dead end host)

117

EEE amplifying host species?

Songbirds (humans, horses dead end hosts)

118

WEE amplfiying host species?

House sparrow/passerines, prairie dog, squirrel, jackrabbit, kangaroo rat (humans, horses dead end hosts)

119

SLE amplifying host species?

Migratory birds (humans dead end host)

120

VEE amplifying host species?

Horses, rodents (humans dead end host)

121

Which viral encephalitis agents makes best bioterror weapon?

VEE (can be aerosolized, human/equine cases occur simultaneously, lg number cases possible )

122

Tick-borne encephalitis virus is transmitted by what genus of ticks?

Ixodes spp

123

Mode of transmission Tick-borne encephalitis virus?

Bite from infected tick; raw milk consumption from infected cow/sheep/goat

124

Powassan virus vector?

Ticks (dermacentor and ixodes in US)

125

Powassan virus amplifying host species?

Small-medium rodents: woodchuck, squirrel, mice

126

Most common neuroinvasive arbovirus overall in US? Most common in children?

WNV overall, LaCrosse in children

127

What species are affected by Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease? Which is most severely affected?

Rare: sheep/goats, Mod: cattle; cervids Most severe in white-tail deer

128

Most common clinical signs of EHD in cattle? In deer?

In cattle, milder with salivation/oral lesions, rarely coronary band erosions
In deer, three syndromes:
1) Peracute (resp distress, swell head/neck, death)
2) Acute/classic( extensive hemorrhage, salivation, bloody nasal discharge, erosions of mouth)
3) Chronic ( lameness, hoof lesions, rumen ulcers)

129

Vector species for EHD (Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease)?

Culicoides spp (biting midges)

130

Ddx for Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease (EHD) in deer?

Bluetongue, FMD, plant photosensitization

131

Ddx for Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease (EHD) in cattle?

FMD, bluetongue, VS, BVD, Malignant catarrhal fever, bovine ephemeral fever

132

Route of transmission EIA (equine infectious anemia)

Blood transfusions/contaminated products, biting flies

133

Primary symptom Equine VIral Arteritis (EVA)

Abortion, rash, pneumonia (rarely or in foals)

134

Primary route of transmission Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA)?

Respiratory, venereal (vaccine preventable)

135

Most common serotype of FMD worldwide?

Serotype O

136

Which species has highest respiratory (aerosol) secretion of FMD?

Swine

137

Potential reservoir species for Heartland virus? Vector?

Reservoir: raccoon and white tail deer
Vector: Lone-star tick (amblyomma americanium)

138

Reservoir species Hendra virus?

Flying fox (fruit bat); horses can also become viremic enough to transmit to close human or horse contacts

139

Histoplasmosis associated with inhalation of contaminated soils high in nitrogen (enriched by feces of what species?)

Bats and birds.

140

Geographic predisposition for following fungal diseases:
Blastomycosis:
Coccidoiodmycosis:
Histoplasmosis:

Blasto: Eastern 1/3 of North America
Coccidoido: SW USA (desert areas)
Histo: Ohio and Mississippi river valleys

141

Define saprozoonosis

Reservoir in soil (not animal)

142

Most common state for lepto dx in the US?

Hawaii (50% cases)

143

Reservoir species LCMV (Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus)?

House mouse; less likely hamsters, pet rodents

144

Clinical signs LCMV (Lynphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus) in people

Can cause birth defects, also aseptic meningitis, encephalitis

145

Route of transmission LCMV?

Contact with contaminated urine/feces/nestmaterials of rodents via broken skin, mucous membranes; also rodent bites, less likely solid organ transplant or maternal-fetal

146

What is the reservoir species for Malignant Catarrhal Fever?

Wildebeest and sheep-types can both infect cattle (herpesvirus)

147

Route of transmission MCF in cattle?

Vertical (maternal-fetal), or from inhalation/contact with infected sheep, wildebeests esp birthing products or nasal/ocular secretions

148

Routes of transmission plague?

Bite of infected flea; skinning/handling dead infected rodents, aerosol from infected animal/person (esp cats)

149

3 forms plague

1) bubonic/LN form
2) septicemic
3) pneumonic/pneumonia

150

Intermediate host Diphyllobothrium
latum

fish

151

Intermediate host Echinococcus
multilocularis

Rodent

152

Intermediate host Echinococcus
granulosus

Ungulate

153

Intermediate host Taenia soleum

Pig

154

Which species can be latent carriers for Aujeszky's disease

swine only

155

Susceptible species pseudorabies

All mammals except humans, apes, rare in horses

156

Mechanism of transmission Aujeszky's disease

1)Aerosol,
2) nose to nose contact,
3) contact with milk, urine, vaginal, preputial discharge,
4) fomites
5) carcasses
6)vertical (transplacental-piglets)

157

Where is latent virus found in swine with Aujeszky's disease?

Trigeminal ganglia (herpesvirus)

158

Clinical signs Aujeszky disease swine?

Piglets- neuro, death
Older- respiratory, fever, abortions

159

Clinical signs Aujeszky disease cattle?

almost always fatal- focal intense pruritus, then progressive neuro signs

160

Diseases transmitted by Dermacentor variabalis (American dog tick)

Tularemia, RMSF

161

Rhipicephalus sanguineus, common name ____ transmits what disease?

Brown dog tick; RMSF

162

Clinical signs RVF in ruminants

Abortion storms after heavy rainfall; youngstock deaths

163

Clinical signs RVF in humans

Self-limiting flu-like majority, 1-2% viral hemorrhagic fever

164

Transmission RVF?

Mosquitoes, ticks, biting flies. also contact with infected dead animals (ie necropsy)

165

When submitting screwworm larve for ID, how should they be submitted?

In alcohol

166

Rabies vaccines used in state/local control programs should have at least __ year duration

3 year

167

Definition anthropozoonosis and example?

Diseases in animals that can be
transmitted to man (i.e., rabies).

168

Definition Zooanthroponoses and example?

Diseases in humans that can be
transmitted to animals (i.e., tuberculosis in cats,
monkeys).

169

Definition Amphixenoses and example?

Diseases affecting humans and
animals that can be occasionally transmitted
from one to another (i.e., staphyloccocal
infection).

170

Definition Euzoonoses and example?

Diseases in which humans are an obligatory host of the agent (i.e., Taenia solium or T. saginata)

171

Definition orthozoonoses and example?

Disease transmission cycle can be completed with
only one vertebrate reservoir (i.e. rabies).

172

Definition cyclozoonoses and example?

Diseases whose maintenance cycle requires more than one vertebrate species, but no invertebrate host (i.e., hydatid disease, taeniasis).

173

Definition metazoonoses/pherozoonoses and example?

Diseases whose maintenance cycle requires both vertebrates and invertebrates to complete their transmission cycle (i.e. arboviruses).

174

Definition saprozoonoses and example?

Diseases that depend upon inanimate reservoirs or development sites, as well as upon vertebrate hosts (eg Listeria)

175

Definition phanerozoonoses?

Zoonoses for which symptoms are observed in animals and humans

176

Definition cryptozoonoses and examples?

Zoonoses for which there is only infection without symptoms in animals and/or humans.
- infection in animals/disease in humans: ornithosis
- Infection in humans/disease in animals: Ebola/Reston

177

Trichinella causes what two phases of infection in people?

Intestinal/enteral and muscular/parenteral

178

Source of most human trichinella cases in US?

Feral swine, other wildlife (bear, marine mammals), rarely commercial swine

179

Which subtype of tularemia is more lethal in humans?

Type A

180

Bovine TB slaughter surveillance looks specifically for what?

Granuloma lesions, especially in lungs, or LNs of head, chest, abdomen

181

Pearl's disease in bovids caused by

M. tuberculosis (granulomas on pleural walls

182

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever route of transmission

Tick-borne

183

Primary mosquito for transmission of Zika?

Aedes spp

184

Mayaro virus produces a clinical syndrome most similar to what other arbovirus?

Chikungunya

185

Usutu virus produces a clinical syndrome most similar to what other arbovirus?

WNV