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Typical Town patterns

1. Rectilinear pattern: originated in agricultural societies. Derived from the logic of parallel furrow plowing (parallel lines that the machine does when moving earth). It also
suited the logic of ordered planning, property ownership, and building construction.
Used often but not always for agricultural settlements.
2. Circular pattern: derived from practices of herding societies: the necessity of enclosing
the maximum amount of land with the minimum amount of fence. It is also suited for
the logic of economical fortification. Used often but not always for military installations.
3. Radiocentric: it is a consequence of incremental urban growth, radiating from a center
and expanding outward to an urban periphery.


layout of Roman Cities

Location: Town’s location depended
on the productivity of the
surrounding regions & territorial
control for strategic land areas.
Layout: Used the rectilinear form of
blocks to form a town.
Security: Enclosure wall were regular
General: Had 2 main intersecting
streets: cardo and decumanus.2
types of Roman towns: Commercial
town/oppidum, Military


Earlier Medieval Cities

-Location: Often built on the
foundations of pre-existing Roman
outpost towns.
-Layout: started at the crossroads of 2
main streets. The town adjusted to
the site conditions⇒ irregular shape
that seemed to lack geometrical
order. Towns were founded and
planned with the use of orderly
geometry (rectilinear, circular and
radiocentric). Medieval cities were
organized around the church and the
-Security: Towns are walled for
defense and depended on hygienic
practices (i.e. waste removal)


Later Medieval Cities

Security: the invention of gunpowder
required more protection

Star-shaped City: regularly spaced
bastions at points around the wall so
that the entire enclosure and all
approaches to the city could be
defended. Streets radiated from out
from the center allowing the defense
to be controlled from one point and
easy movement of materials and


Renaissance Planning

-reference to the classical world
-central public plaza as design service. Urban core!
-star shaped fortification (military fortification design)


Baroque planning

General: The concept was applied
first for forest landscapes and later
applied to towns. Begins in Italy

-Connector: Boulevards were used to
unite the various parts of a larger,
often expanding city.
-Focus: Plazas were used as a
convening public forum in a compact
town. Strong central axial. Grid street layout.
: Vista avenues in Versailles
used in French landscape
architecture to make large expanses
of terrain visible (Berninis St. Peters Basilica in Rome. London, Washington


Industrial Revolution

Factory System: work force had to
be close to the factory, source of
power, and transportation =
population increase in factory town → overcrowding, filthy, devoid of
open space, and recreational
activities. Industrial citiy, Kansas City , Missuri


Garden City Concept

General: result of the reform
movement and published by
Ebenezer Howard in 1898.s
Concept: combine the best of the
city and country
-living in his town-country idea.


Cite Industrielle Concept

General: result of the reform
movement and published by Tony
Garnier in 1917. 1st concept to emphasize the idea of zoning

-Concept: it is a model industrial city. It suggests the separation of work from housing; separate zones for residential, public, industrial, and agricultural use, linked by separate circulation paths for vehicles and pedestrians. Buildings would be placed on long narrow lots with ample open space between them.


Gridiron Street system

General: encouraged by the Ordinance of 1785 which established the rectangular survey system /ubiquitous system of the USA. The system divided the country into a
grid of Checks- 24 miles square, each subdivided into 16 townships (6miles on a side), each further divided into 36 sections (1mile square)

-Concept: regularly planned public open spaces and uniform spacing and setbacks of buildings.


New Town Concept

Concept: it is an extension of the idea that entirely new communities can be built away from the crowding and ugliness of existing cities. These new towns were suppose to be autonomous centers surrounded by a greenbelt, but they never became truly independent because they lacked significant employment centers; they still depended on nearby cities for jobs


New Urbanism

Concept: attempt to counter the many undesirable aspects of city development (urban sprawl,
automobile dependence, environmental deterioration,
housing segregation, loss of farmland, single use development.
One of the primary design features is the development of neighborhoods intended for mix use. It promotes the connection of neighborhoods and towns to regional patterns of bicycle and public transportation, and pedestrian systems. It encourages buildings to be integrated with their surroundings, and supports the preservation and reuse of historic structures.


Sir Christopher Wren

 Master plan for rebuilding the city of London after the Great Fire of 1666 (not used)
 Designed 51 churches in the city of London
 Work: St. Paul’s Cathedral (1710)


Kevin Lynch

 Coined the words “imageability” and “wayfinding”
 Wrote The Image of the City which influenced urban planning and environmental psychology


Christopher Wolfgang Alexander

 Wrote A Pattern Language which describes a practical
architectural system called a “generative form”. The reasoning is that users know more about the buildings they need than any architect could; the "pattern language" is designed to empower anyone to design and build at any scale.


Jane Jacobs

 Wrote The Death and Life of Great American Cities which is a critique of urban renewal policy of the 1950s and how they destroyed communities and created isolated, unnatural urban spaces.
 Jacobs advocated the abolition of zoning laws and restoration of free markets in land, which would result in vibrant, dense, and mixed-use neighborhoods and communities
 Frequently cited Greenwich Village as an example of a vibrant urban community
 Coined phrase “eyes on the street” a reference to natural surveillance by people in their neighborhood


Camillo Sitte

 Authority on urban construction planning and regulation in Europe
 Wrote City Planning According to Artistic Principles which suggested that the quality of urban space is more important than architectural form (the whole is much more than sum of its parts)
 Planning cannot be done in 2D, but IN 3D.


Georges-Eugène Haussmann

 Responsible for the plan to rebuild and “modernize” Paris under Napoléon III
 Rebuilding of Paris plan inspired some of the most important architectural movements including the City Beautiful Movement in the United States
 Encompassed all aspects of urban planning, both in the city center and in the surrounding districts.
 Cut down the Luxembourg Garden and destroyed much of the old city with twisting streets and rundown apartments.
 Built new wide tree lined boulevards. Placed regulations on facades/heights of buildings, public parks, sewers/waterworks, facilities and monuments.
 Influenced by the frequency of street revolutions, now streets were too broad for rebels to build barricades and military could assemble and get through


Tony Garnier

 Wrote Une Cité Industrielle which suggested that functions of a city could be separated by zoning into four categories: leisure, industry, work, and transportation
 Was developed in response to the industrial revolution
 Schools and vocational schools are placed near the industries they’re related to, and there are no churches or government/ police buildings so man can rule himself.
 Pioneered the use of reinforced concrete
 Designed innovative building block with free standing houses
 Enormous open spaces. There are few squares or parks
 Trees are incorporated into important streets
 Designed Hall Tony Garnier in Paris, Lyon-1905


Urban planning
Sir Ebenezer Howard

 Wrote Garden Cities of To-morrow which describe a utopian city
where people live harmoniously with nature, the basis for the Garden City Movement.
 The book offered a vision of towns free of slums and enjoying the benefits of both town (such as opportunity, amusement and good wages) and country (such as beauty, fresh air and low
rents). He illustrated the idea with his famous Three
Magnets diagram (pictured), which addressed the question 'Where will the people go?', the choices being 'Town', 'Country' or 'Town-Country

It is based on radial precintual pattern!


Sir Ebenezer Howard

 Wrote Garden Cities of To-morrow which describe a utopian city where people live harmoniously with nature, the basis for the Garden City Movement.
 The book offered a vision of towns free of slums and enjoying the benefits of both town (such as opportunity, amusement and good wages) and country (such as beauty, fresh air and low
rents). He illustrated the idea with his famous Three
Magnets diagram (pictured), which addressed the question 'Where will the people go?', the choices being 'Town', 'Country' or 'Town-Country


Pierre Charles L’Enfant

 Designed the layout of the streets in Washington DC
 Submitted plans for the federal city in Washington DC that followed Baroque planning elements including grand radial avenues, sight lines, ceremonial spaces, and respect of natural contours of the land. The two most important buildings on the avenues were to be the houses of Congress and the White House.
 Visual connections would be made down avenues to ideal sites throughout the city, including buildings, monuments, and fountains
 Was dismissed of his duties and city plan was awarded to surveyor Andrew Ellicott, who's revisions became the basis for the development
 In 1901 a partial redesign of the capital used L’Enfant plans, including the development of the national mall where his largest avenue was originally intended.


Daniel Hudson Burnham

 Director of works and designed the general plan of the World’s Columbian Exposition in Chicago
 Designed one of the first skyscrapers: the Masonic Temple Building, which was 21 stories tall, and a skeleton frame
 Designed the Flatiron Building in New York and Union Station in Washington DC, as well as the Monadnock, Reliance Building,
and Rookery offices
 Prepared the Plan of Chicago which laid out plans for the future of the city to controlled growth and suggested that every citizen should be within walking distance of a park
 Helped with the McMillan Plan which led to the overall design of the national mall in Washington DC
*Chicago School and City beautiful movement
*terra cotta tiles


Clarence Samuel Stein
Architect /Urban Planner/Writer

 Major proponent of the Garden City Movement in the USA
 Collaborated with Henry Wright to design Rayburn, New Jersey a garden suburb noted for its superblock layout and for the total separation between the automobile and the pedestrian.


Henry Wright
Landscape Architect

 Major proponent of the garden city, an idea characterized by green belts and created by Sir Ebenezer Howard
 Wright became one of the core members of the Regional Planning Association of America, along with Clarence Stein, Lewis Mumford, and Benton MacKaye, and it was this association that led to Wright's most well-known work


Lewis Mumford

 Believed that what sets humans apart from animals is not our use of tools, but our use of language/symbols.
 Critical of urban sprawl and argued that the structure of modern cities is partially responsible for social problems seen in western society. Argues that urban planning should emphasize organic relationships between people and their living spaces
 Said the medieval city should be the basis of the ideal city.
 Modern cities are too much like Roman cities (a sprawling megalopolis) which ended in collapse.


William Van Alen

Movements Art deco. Concepts Tiered crown
Designed the Chrysler Building in NY.


HH Richardson

Movements: Romanesque, Chicago School.
Materials Terra cotta tiles with geometric/ foliate design. Masonry skin over iron frame.

ex. Marshall Field store, Chicago, and Trinity Church, Boston


Luis Sullivan

Movements Modernism, Chicago School.
Materials: Load Bearing Masonry.
Ex. Opera Auditorium building, chicago based on Marshall Field store


Le Corbusier

Movements: Modernism, International Style
Concepts: Golden Section, Contemporary City, Radiant City. Five points: Free Facade, Strip windows, roof garden. New spirit (opposed Zeitgiest and Art Deco)
Materials: Reinforced concrete
Ex. Notre Dame Du Haut in Ronchamp (funny concrete building with a pick pointing out)
Ex. Unite d'habitation, 1945 France first housing unit. (Massive concrete building)


Buck minster Fuller

Movements: Neo-futuristic
Concepts: Geodesic Dome
Ex. Dymaxion House, aluminum manufactured low-income housing


Frank l Wright

Movements: Chicago School and Prairie School
COncepts: Broad acre City
ex. Usonian House, Low-income, single story


Fay Jones

Movements: Chicago School and Prairie School
Materials: Indigenous wood
ex. Thorncrown Chapel, Arkansas


What happen after the civil war with the cities?

Industrial towns were created. Also transportation centers, worker settlements, garden suburbs, urban parks, and urban transportations.


What happened with the growth of the American "standard of living"

Decline of "primary population" (farmers, miners, raw material extractors)
Growth of secondary population (factory workers)
-increase of tertiary (service workers)


Precintual planning pattern

Stems from the center of the city is allowed to expand in all directions. Flexible but can lead to urban sprawl


Transect planning

Separates a city into six linear zones that gradually transition from a heavily dense urban center to natural habitat areas along the city edge. It focuses on conservation of the environment by placing areas with greatest pollution at the farthest point from natural spaces


Literary movements:

Historicism: post modernism. Founder Steven G
-zeitgeist: similar designs-go with the flow
-deconstruction: provide different perspectives with one building


Urban planning
Parks movement

Initiated by Calvert Vaux and Frederick law Olmsted ie. Central Park and prospect park


Baltimore, Maryland

-'monument city' Washington monument axially centered layout.
-precintual radial growth


Savannah Georgia

-planner: James Oglethorpe
-land divided into wards
-wards divided into tything and trust blocks
-square contain historical structures
-military inspired


Kansas City, Missouri

Industrial city


Arcosanti, Arizona

-experiment in arcology
-arcology: architecture to meet ecology


Seaside, Florida

Planner: Andres daunty and Elizabeth player zyberk
-based on new urbanism
-radial and grid


Road types

Local street, collector street, arterial street, expressway


What is an environmental impact statement (E I S)

And E I S is a document required under US environmental law by the national environmental policy act. It is required by any federal government agency undertaking a project that my significantly affect the quality of the human environment


What is an environmental impact assessment E I a?

And environmental impact assessment EIA is a shorter, mini E I S designed to provide Just enough information to allow the permitting agency to decide whether a full blown environmental impact his statement is necessary.
The EiA is an evaluation of the possible impact that A proposed project may have on the surrounding environment.


Describe the four sections off and environmental impact statement?

1 introduction: includes a "statement of purpose" and "need off the proposed action" to describe the project
2-description of their affected environment in areas
3-range of alternatives to the proposed actions. alternatives are considered the heart of that EIS.
4- Analysis of the environmental impacts of each of the possible alternatives


What is an environmental impact report EIR?

And EIR is similar to an EIA, as in EIR also serves to inform for meeting agencies in the public of the projects environmental impacts. In California, for example, an E I R is required if the lead permitting agency determines that the project poses a considerable environmental impact.


What are the tree possible decisions a lead agency may render after reviewing a project proposal for environmental impact?

1- the negative declaration. The project has no significant environmental impact and no EIR is required.
2-mitigated negative declaration: the project could potentially have an environmental impact, but if a list of proposed mitigation measures Are added to the project, then no EIR is required
3-EIR Is required. The project will have an significant environmental impact and there are not enough measures to mitigate the impact, then a full environmental impact report would be required


What is an aquifer?

An aquifer is a layer of water flowing underground, sometimes referred to as an underground stream


What is soil loadbearing capacity

Bearing capacity refers to the maximum amount of pressure a foundation soil can bear without harmful settlement


Name for soil types and their capacities

Bed rock equals 10,000 pounds per square foot. Well Graded gravel or sand 3000 to 12,000 pounds per square foot. Compacted sand or fill equals 2000 to 3000 pound per square foot. So don't play equals 1000 to 4000 PSF


What is a spread footing

A spread of footing is the most economical type of foundation. The footing delivers the structural load directly into the soil. Area of the footings varies by the structural load and the Bering capacity of the soil


What is an mat foundation

And Mat foundation is an expensive approach where a continues foundation is poured on there the entire building. it's typically only use when the strata is weak such as poor soils including very expansive soils


What are belled caissons?

Bell Caissons are deep holes are drilled down to from strata. Concrete is then poured into the holes, creating a really, really deep type of spread footing.


What is an end bearing pile

An end bearing pile is the concrete stick called a pile that is driven into the ground onto the tip meet firm resistance from this strata, piles are two-3 times the cost of spread footings


What is a friction pile?

Is used when no solid Bedrock is present and the pile is driven into softer soil, and the friction of the soil transfers the load. The Bering capacity is limited either by the strength of the pile or the friction of the soil.


In terms of topographical map what Concave slopes?

Concave subs are where the ground is scope out like a cave. There are shown by Parallel contours spaced at the decreasing intervals going up here.


In terms of a topographical map, what are convex slopes

Are when that ground slopes like the top off the circle think contact lenses. They are shown by parallel contours spaced at increasing Intervals going uphill. Water will shed away from a convex slope.


What is a spot elevation

A number corresponding to the exact elevation at a key point on the ground


Which is permitted to be steeper: a cut slope or a filled slope

Cut slope. Cut earth is generally more stable than filled


What is the least expensive and most convenient way to grade a site?

Balance the amount of cut and fill.


Name 5 surface draining systems

Gutters, culverts, gabions, channels, dense planting areas.


What is the purpose of swale

To control storm water run off and allow for proper drainage. In order to direct run off, swells are used to change the grading.swells our channels caught into the earth and are shown with the contours pointing up heel and the path or flow is running perpendicular to the revise contour


What are three goals of properly designed storm drainage system

Prevent pooling or ponding of water. Prevent flooding. Prevent erosion


What are the survey the Desirable slopes for surface drainage

Open land 1/2% minimum slope
streets 1/2% slope.
Planted areas 1% to 25% maximum slope.
Large paved areas 1% maximum sloped.
Land next to building 2% meaning min slope.
Drainage swells 2% to 10% maximum slope planted banks up to 50% slope


What is a groundwater table

They layer below the surface soil when it is saturated soil. Sometimes there's water table is 2 feet below the surface, sometimes it is 200 feet below.


What are three types of land assessments that might be used on a site to the determine it's monetary value for tax purposes

Income approach. Market approach. Cost approach.


What is Amortizatjon

Is the paying off a loan in regular installments over a period of time. A loan can have a negative a Amortizartion, where the loan actually increases if the full interest amount isn't paid


How might a sites lands value be determined

Comparison method. Development method. Residual income approach method. Allocation method


What is a joint tenancy

Each tenant has a designated Share of ownership in the whole bundling, which passes to their survivors after death


Types of loans available to land buyers

Blanket loan
Deed of trust
Mezzanine loan
Bridge loan
Conventional mortgage


Name 3 methods to mitigate the making of noise present on a site

Filling the walls with acoustical insults him. Changing the location of openings. Taking advantage of triple glazed windows


5 types of hosing typically used in residential development?

1-single family residential
3- row house
4-walk up apartment
5- high rise apartments


What is density?

Net density is the Ratiol of people to the land. but exclude the streets, open spaces and parks, which could total as much as 25% off the overall site.


What is gross density

Gross density is the ratio of the people to the land, but includes everything


Name 6 typical housing patterns

Street front patter
End-on pattern
Court pattern
Cluster pattern
Urban renewal


What's expand ability

The capacity of a building to be enlarged easily or added onto as needs change or growth occurs. This allows the building to accommodate growth with expansions


Describe convertibility

Allows an existing building or space to be changed to allow for new use.


What is versatility

The ability to use the same space for a variaty of functions. Please allow for maximum use of the space and provides for several different activities


What is a catchment area

The area surrounding an attraction like a public park, central amenity or a retail district that draws people from the surrounding area.


What are the ahwahnee ppals. Concerned with?

The principles state the development should be Compact but provide open space through squares or parks. They also call for housing which provides places to live for a variaty of people within a single neighborhood instead of separating people by income level, age of family situation


Name to toxic building materials that have been banned from new construction

asbestos and lead paint


Describe to mitigation measures if hazardous materials are found on a site or within an existing building

Remove as starters material from the site and properly disposing. Encapsulate am permanently seal the material asper required guidelines


How is asbestos generally removed from the building

AsBestos abatement involves sealing up the affected areas of the building in order to safely remove the asbestos. Often this is done with a special vacuum and disposed of with special care .if the asbestos cannot be removed It can be sealed over with new materials in what's called encapsulation


What actions may be taken to remove lead from a building?

All peeling and chipping paint will have to be removed, and any remaining paint can be encapsulated


Describe universal design

Refers to the Wide array of concepts surrounding making buildings accessible for everyone, including people with disabilities, but also for the early thoroughly or people without disabilities who may still need a special consideration


What is defensible space

Defensible space proposes the social issues like crime in vandalism can be controlled and even reduce through proper environmental design. This is an important concept because he relates any individuals environment to he's or her expectation of crime in the community


Define personal space

Is a concept initially introduced by sociologist Edward T whole defining how are proximity to others varies based in their behavior. We each have a personal space bubble


What are the typical distances considered as personal space

Intimate distance touching distance 146 radios around each person. Personal distance is standing close together on an elevator 4 feet radius around each person. Social distance walking down the street 12 feet radius


What are the four factors that create if defensible space

Territoriality: the idea that ones home is sacred.
Natural surveillance: the link between an areas physical characteristics and the residents ability to see what's happening.
-image: the ability of the physical forms to impart a sense of security.
-milieu (environment) other features that may affect security, such as proximity to a police station or busy retail district.


What is building commissioning.

And engineering process of testing, Auditing, and verifying the mechanical systems in a building to make sure they are Opie rating at peak efficiency


How can the concept of lifecycle costing be used to make in the building more efficient

Lifecycle costing means taking into account not only initial purchase any installation cost but also the cost of a lifetime of use.


What is the toxic substances control act concerned with?

The objective of the toxic substances control act TSCA is to Allow epa to regulate new commercial chemicals before they enter the market, to regulate existing chemicals when they pose an unreasonable risk to health or to the environment, and to regulate their distribution and use


What's r-value

Is the measure of a materials ability to retain temperature and resist heat transmission. The higher the r value, the higher the materials ability to insulate


What is u-value?

U-value is the inverse of r value. Is used to measure the ability of a window to retain temperature


What are 6 strategies to reduce energy use

Install solar panels, increase the amount of insulation in the walls. Use insulated windows. Orient building to sun to control hear gain. Install light color roof . Use efficient light bulbs


What are 5 strategies to reduce water use

Use drip irrigation system for landscaping.
Use low flow or material toilets.
Use native species and drought tolerant plants
Collect gray water from showers and laundry and reuse to water yard or flush toilets.
Collect rainwater for reuse


What's is the beaux arts architecture

Refers to an academic style of architecture done in a historically classic style. It was thought and popularize at the echo des beaux arts in Paris, which promoted an approach to design inspired by the stylistic elements of the ancient civilizations, especially imperial roman architecture


Describe the city beautiful movement

Encourage integrating the design of the landscape with grand boulevards and buildings, it provided a vision of what's possible when architects, planners and landscape architects work together


What famous event was the beaux arts style featured prominently in 1893

Worlds Colombian exposition in Chicago


Who were the first notable American to attend the ecole des beaux arts in Paris

Richard Morris hunt
Charles f mckin
Hh Richardson


Who were the leaders in new urbanism

Andres Duany, Elizabeth plater-zyberk, stefanos polyzoides, Elizabeth moule, Peter calthrope, and Michael Corbett


Name 4 elements of the city beautiful movement

1-grand public space containing some central landscape feature
2-and interconnected civic space that completes the central node
3-they use a boulevard is to connect this public spaces together
4-The use of classical elements in the buildings in morning men's they inspire a sense of civic pride, grandeur and recall the fame spaces of Europe


What is new urbanism

Reactionary movement in urban design whose goal is to undo post-war suburban sprawl with a focus on walkable neighborhood in mix areas


What is the significance or Radburn, NJ

It was the first garden city plan in the U.S.


What is Daniel burnhan know for

Chicago architect and planner. Instrumental in the development of the skycraper. Key contributor of the Chicago school


Charles mckim

Architect on the late 1800s in Boston. Member of mc Kim, mead, and white bringing beaux-arts architecture to America. Boston public library, penn station


Who was Walter Gropius

German architect. Founder of the Bauhaus school, pioneer of modern architecture


Describe the shingle style

Closely related to masonry. Mimics the shape of stone, has shingles used as membrane, cavernous openings in game are emphasized


Describe bunalow/craftsman

Low, small and modest construction that has a Japanese influence with square battered columns, exposed rafter tails and emphasis of craftsmanship in design. Wide eaves, ideas borrowed from single style, and considered a dignified middle class home


What was the international style?

An effort to industrialize craft traditions, which lead to the Bauhaus school led by Walter Gropius


Who was Kevin lynch

Wrote the image of the city and how users perceive an organize space as they navigate through the cities