Enzyme regulation second exam Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Enzyme regulation second exam Deck (18):
1

a key protein for the HIV virus

viral protease (asparate protease)

2

why is the viral protease so important to the HIV virus

cleaves the polypeptide in the virus into various components required to make more virus particles

3

how do engineers try and attack HIV virus

designer drugs to inhibit the asparate protease

4

the reversible attachment of a functional group to/on a protein or enzyme via a covalent bond

covalent modification

5

examples of covalent modification

phosphorylation/dephosphorylation
oxidation/reduction
proenzymes vs. zymogens

6

where is phosphorylation/dephosphorylation typically found in the cell

found in signaling cascades

7

oxidation and reduction are common with

photosynthetic enzymes

8

an inactive enzyme precursor that must e proteolytically cleaved or hydrolyzed in order to become active

proenzyme

9

proenzyme synonym, often used in reference to a digestive proenzyme

zymogen

10

secreted from the pancreas into the digestive system

chymotrypsinogen

11

enzyme that cuts chymotrypsinogen

trypsin

12

how is insulin activated

pro insulin folds back on itself, and residues 31-65 are excised by proteolytic cleavage to produce active insulin

13

when a substance binds to a site other than the "active site"

allosteric regulation

14

inhibitors of phosphofructokinase

ATP
citrate
PEP

15

activators of phosphofructokinase

AMP
ADP
fructose-2,6-P2

16

three other factors that regulate enzyme activity

availability of cofactors
pH
temperature

17

changes in pH can

change ionization state of active site groups
change ionization state of substrates
precipitate proteins

18

changes in temperature

speed up/slow down rate of reaction
high temperatures can denature and precipitate proteins