Introduction to Amino Acids Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Introduction to Amino Acids Deck (40):
1

the building blocks of peptides and proteins

amino acids

2

explains the storage, retrieval and expression of genetic information

central dogma

3

duplication of DNA to make an identical copy

replication

4

reading of a gene and its production into RNA

transcription

5

an RNA sequence created into the corresponding sequence of amino acids to form a protein

translation

6

the first biological step towards the outward display of phenotypic traits

proteins

7

what is the unique feature of each amino acid

the R group

8

can act as an acid or base depending on the pH

Amphoteric

9

amino acids that can carry both positive and minus charges on the same molecule

zwitterions

10

pH were there is no net charge

isoelectric point

11

all four groups attached to the carbon are different

asymmetric

12

four main groups of amino acids

neutral non-polar
neutral polar
acidic
basic

13

contain hydrocarbon groups with no charge

nonpolar amino acids

14

have functional groups that can easily interact with water through hydrogen bonding

polar amino acids

15

have side chains with a carboxylate group that ionizes at physiological pH

acidic amino acids

16

bear a positive charge at physiological pH

basic amino acids

17

molecules that have the same structural formulas and bonding patterns but with a different arrangement of atoms or groups in space

stereoisomers

18

stereoisomers that are mirror images of each other

enantiomers

19

D enantiomers

dextrorotary

20

L enantiomers

levorotary

21

must be obtained in the diet

essential amino acids

22

can be made by the human body

non-essential amino acids

23

what are the essential amino acids

isoleucine
leucine
lysine
methionine
phenylalanine
threonine
tryptophan
valine

24

how is a peptide linkage formed

the oxygen from the carboxyl group of the first amino acid and the two hydrogen from the amino group of the second amino acid bond to form water,

25

a tripeptide found in most all organisms and is involved in protein and DNA synthesis, toxic substance metabolism, and amino acid transport

glutathione

26

what is the order of amino acids in glutathione

glutamate, cysteine, glycine

27

an antidiuretic hormone that regulates water balance, appetite, and body temperature

vasopressin

28

a peptide that aids in uterine contraction and lactation

oxytocin

29

leads to a reversible disulfide bond

cysteine oxidation

30

forms when two cysteine residues form this bond to help stabilize polypeptides and proteins

disulfide bridge

31

intermediates formed by the reaction of an amino group in proteins with an aldehyde group in sugars

Schiff's base or aldimines

32

inhibitory NT of the brain, involved in muscle relaxation, sleep, diminished emotional reaction and sedation

GABA

33

NT of the brain; modulates mood, appetite, sexual activity, aggression, body temperature, sleep, smooth muscle contraction

Serotonin

34

secreted by the pineal gland during darkness; linked to circadian rhythms and sleep wake cycles

melatonin

35

secreted by the thyroid; increases rates of chemical reactions and metabolism in almost all cells of the body

thyroxine

36

major plant hormone, stimulates cell growth and elongation, rooting; inhibits axillary bud development

indole-3-Acetic acid

37

found in proteins that bind calcium ions including prothrombin for blood clotting and osteocalcin in bone

carboxyglutamate

38

found in plant cell walls and collagen of connective tissues

4-hydroxyproline

39

also found in collagen of connective tissues

5-hydroxylysine

40

phosphorylated derivative of OH containing AA's involved in signaling and gene expression

o-phosphoserine