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Flashcards in monosaccharides and disaccharides Deck (56):
1

two molecules that are made of the same atoms connected in the same sequence, but the atoms are positioned differently in space

stereoisomers

2

non-superimposable mirror images

enantiomers

3

D-Ribose and L-Ribose are

enantiomers

4

stereoisomers that are not enantiomers (not mirror images)

diastereomers

5

D-arabinose and D-ribose are

diastereomers

6

diastereomers that differ at a single chiral carbon

epimers

7

D-glucose and D-mannose are ____that differ at____

epimers
second carbon position

8

an aldehyde and an alcohol make a

hemiacetal

9

a ketone and an alcohol make a

hemiketal

10

the two possible diastereomers that are formed because of cyclization

anomers

11

alpha D glucose OH group is

not in the same plane as the oxygen

12

beta D glucose OH group is

in the same plane as the oxygen

13

monosaccharides may readily undergo several oxidation reactions in the presence of metal ions or certain enzymes

oxidation

14

D-gluconic acid is an example of

aldonic acid

15

D-glucuronic acid is an example of

uronic acid

16

D-glucaric acid is an example of

aldaric acid

17

can be produced if the carbonyl groups of aldonic and uronic acids react with an OH group in the same molecule

lactone

18

example of naturally produced lacone

L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C)

19

powerful reducing agent that protects cells from reactive oxygen and nitrogen species

Vitamin C

20

another name for sugar alcohols

alditols

21

sugar alcohols are produced by the _____of aldehyde and ketone groups of monosaccharides

reduction

22

free OH groups of carbohydrates can be converted to esters by reaction with acids

esterfication

23

the products of the dehydration of a carboxylic acid and an alcohol

esters

24

originally called dextrose, it is found in large quantities throughout the natural world, a primary fuel for living cells, preferred energy for brain cells and cells without mitochondria

D-glucose

25

often referred to as the fruit sugar, because of its high content in fruit, twice as sweet as sucrose, used as a sweetening agent

D- fructose

26

sperm use ____ as an energy source

fructose

27

necessary to synthesize a variety of important biomolecules

galactose

28

a genetic disorder resulting from a missing enzyme in galactose metabolism

galactosemia

29

D-glucuronic acid is used in the liver to improve water solubility to remove waste molecules

uronic acids

30

D-glucosamine and D-galactosamine are the most common and often attached to proteins or lipids

amino sugars

31

form of sugar found in DNA

deoxy sugars

32

two monosaccharides linked by a glycosidic bond

disaccharides

33

disaccharide found in milk

lactose

34

lactose is made of

galactose and glucose via beta 1,4 linkage

35

lactose is a

reducing sugar

36

an intermediate product of starch hydrolysis

maltose

37

maltose has what kind of bond

alpha 1,4 linkage between two glucose molecules

38

a degradation product of cellulose

cellobiose

39

cellobiose has what kind of bond

beta 1,4 glycosidic bond between two glucose molecules

40

common table sugar produced in the leaves and stems of plants

sucrose

41

sucrose has what kind of bond

alpha, beta 1,2 glycosidic bond between glucose and fructose

42

sucrose is a

nonreducing sugar

43

have one type of monosaccharide and are found in starch, glycogen, cellulose, and citin

homoglycans

44

the energy reservoir of plant cells and a significant source of carbohydrates in human diet

starch

45

two polysaccharides occur together in starch

amylose and amylopectin

46

is composed of long, unbranched chains of D-glucose with a 1,4 linkages between them

amylose

47

branched forms of starch

amylopectin

48

the branches in amylopectin occur where

alpha 1,6 linkage

49

a polymer of D-glucopyranosides linked by beta 1,4 glycosidic bond

cellulose

50

most abundant organic substance on earth

cellulose

51

result from carbohydrates being linked to proteins and lipids

glycoconjugates

52

distinguished from other glycoproteins by their high carbohydrate content, roles in organizing extracellular matrix, involved in signal transduction

proteoglycans

53

example of a genetic disorder involving the metabolism of proteoglycans

hurler's syndrome

54

polysaccharide in which parallel strands are joined by hydrogen bonds

cellulose
chitin

55

used for structural support in the cell walls of fungi and the external skeletons of insects and crustaceans
contain a nitrogen group

chitin

56

used for structural support in bacterial cell walls and have a chain of four amino acids

peptidoglycans