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Flashcards in Structure of DNA Deck (54):
1

linear polymers of nucleotides that function in the storage and expression of genetic information, and its transfer from one generation to the next

Nucleic Acid

2

two types of nucleic acids

ribonucleic acid (RNA)
De-oxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)

3

the three molecular components of nucleotides

nitrogenous base
pentose sugar
phosphate

4

six membered heterocyclic rings of C and N

Pyrimidines

5

fused six membered and five membered heterocyclic rings of C and N

purines

6

N-groups can accept protons, giving "basic" properties to the molecule

bases

7

three characteristics of xanthine and hypoxanthine

rarely occur
are removed during DNA repair
are intermediates in nucleotide catabolism

8

which bases are found in DNA

adenine
guanine
thymine
cytosine

9

which bases are found in RNA

adenine
guanine
uracil
cytosine

10

secondary metabolites of cocoa beans and tea leaves
act as diuretic, cardiac stimulant, and esp vasodilator

theobromine and theophylline

11

stimulant
diuretic
antagonist to adenosine

caffeine

12

nitrogenous bases attached to sugars

nucleosides

13

inhibitory neurotransmitter synthesized in the brain, binds to its respective receptor

adenosine

14

binding of adenosine causes

drowsiness
dilation of blood vessels

15

what competes with adenosine receptor to cause opposite effects

caffeine

16

antibiotic produced from fungus cordyceps militaris
which inhibits the final step of RNA biosynthesis by termination of the ribonucleotide chain

cordycepin (3' deoxy adenosine)

17

plant hormones derived from adenine
contains adenine ring system with an attached 5-carbon hydrophobic group at free NH2
promote cell division in plants

cytokinins

18

when you have the base, phosphate and sugar all together

nucleotide

19

phosphate acceptor/donor

ATP

20

protein synthesis and signal transduction

GTP

21

Membrane and storage lipid synthesis

CTP

22

carbohydrate synthesis and degradation

UTP

23

bond between the 5' carbon and the oxygen of the first phosphate group in ATP

phosphoester bond

24

bonds between the oxygens of the second and third phosphate groups in ATP

phosphoanhydride bonds

25

a molecule that ATP is able to borrow phosphate groups from

phosphocreatine

26

the energy difference before and after a process or reaction occurs

delta G
gibbs free energy

27

if delta G is +

input of energy required

28

if delta G -

energy is given off
the reaction is spontaneous

29

a short lived intracellular chemical signal molecule that relays a message from an external "first messenger" which will lead to a cascade of events

secondary messenger

30

common first messengers

hormones and neurotransmitters

31

common secondary messengers

calcium ions
inositol-Pi3
diacylglycerol
cyclic nucleotides

32

how is cAMP formed

the oxygen on the phosphate group wraps around to bond with the 3' carbon

33

involved in many signal cascades including hormone signaling, apoptosis, disease reactions, neuron function

adenylate cyclase (cAMP)

34

involved in nitric oxide signaling, blood pressure homeostasis, nerve impulse transmission, and stress response in plants

guanylate cyclase (cGMP)

35

enzyme that produces cyclic amp

adenylate cyclase

36

explain the cAMP mediated signal transduction

first messengers bind to receptor
activate G protein which changes GDP to GTP
activates active adenylate cyclase
creates cAMP

37

adenine and thymine form how many hydrogen bonds

2

38

guanine and cytosine form how many hydrogen bonds

3

39

DNA and RNA are always read from ____ to ____

5' to 3'

40

what is the distance for the major groove

3.3 nm

41

how many bases are stacked in a major groove

10

42

each base is how long

0.34 nm

43

what is the most stable form of DNA

B-DNA

44

form when DNA/RNA duplexes form and due to low hydration

A-DNA

45

left handed DNA that can form as a result of torsion during transcription

Z-DNA

46

helps to compact DNA into cell nucleus

supercoiling

47

help with the supercoiling process

histones

48

chromatin is

DNA and histones

49

8 histones with DNA wound to it

neucleosome

50

structure of chromatin when neucleosomes are spread out from each other, is easily manipulated, beads on a string model.

euchromatin

51

neucleosomes and DNA are packed so tightly, no free DNA is available for manipulation

heterochromatin

52

performed experiments with a harmless and deadly bacteria strains on mice to

Griffith

53

proved that only DNA transformed strain R, ie, only isolated DNA from strain S could make strain R harmful, not proteins

Avery, MacLeod, and McCarthy

54

further proved that DNA is the genetic material using viruses

hershey and chase