Epidemiology and Evidenced Based Practice Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Epidemiology and Evidenced Based Practice Deck (70)
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1
Q

define epidemiology

A

study of Distribution and Determinants of health and illness in human populations for the purpose of controlling disease and health problems

2
Q

what does the term Distribution mean r/t epidemiology

A

spread (who, what, where, when of diseases)

3
Q

what does the term Determinants mean r/t epidemiology

A

the why of diseases

4
Q

current epidemiological news today

A

Zika virus

HPV vaccine

5
Q

Distribution r/t the Zika virus

A
Who = host = pregnant women, men (sexual partners)
What = flaki virus
When = hottest times of year when mosquito's are most prevalent
Where =  S. America, Florida, Caribbean (demographics)
6
Q

Determinant r/t the Zika virus

A

Why (care?) = causes microcephaly

7
Q

Distribution r/t HPV vaccine

A

Who - women 14-34 years of age
What - human papillomavirus
When - adolescence
Where - America

8
Q

Determinant r/t HPV vaccine

A

Why - decreased risk of HPV infection

9
Q

who is John Snow

A

soldier against disease (Cholera) in the mid 1800’s in England

10
Q

what did John Snow do?

A

asked people who was dying, where, what they were dying of and when it was all occurring

11
Q

who is known as the father of public health/epidemiology

A

John Snow

12
Q

noxious miasma theory

A

“pig pen” dirty, poor people theory

13
Q

what is cholera

A

a water born disease, bacterial

14
Q

taking the pump handle of means

A

getting to the source/issue

15
Q

epidemiological triad

A

agent (disease process/cholera)
host
environment
these factors interacting cause disease

16
Q

wheel of causation

A

inner circle - genetic core
middle circle - host
outer circle - biologic, social, physical environment

17
Q

web of causation helps to

A

determine the why (determinant)

18
Q

primary prevention

A

promote health before disease/behavior occurs

eg: Teen Pregnancy (condoms, pill); Vaccines (flu)

19
Q

secondary prevention

A

state of disease - not interventions
eg: Teen Pregnancy (screening for preg. itself); HIV tested; assessing, interviewing, identify people (domestic violence)

20
Q

tertiary prevention

A

preventing death/disability from disease state

eg: Teen Pregnancy (prenatal care)

21
Q

define endemic

A

usual presence of disease within a geographic area

flu virus is endemic to North-Eastern U.S. in winter

22
Q

define epidemic

A

significant increase in number of cases of a disease (beyond endemic)

23
Q

define pandemic

A

an epidemic affecting multiple countries/regions of the world

24
Q

define common source outbreak

A

exposure to a common, harmful substance

25
Q

define propagated outbreak

A

transmission of infectious agent from one person to the next

26
Q

how to calculate rates

A

Events measured (infant deaths) are in the Numerator
All who could have died are in the Denominator
Specific period of time must be indicated
Multiply by base (multiple of 10)

27
Q

what is a crude rate

A

occurrence of a health problem in a community at a certain time

28
Q

what is an adjusted rate

A

adjust for the effected (gender, ethnicity) - removes differences in populations

29
Q

***what is relative risk ratio

A

your chances of getting disease if exposed

incidence rate in an exposed group vs the non-exposed group:ratio

30
Q

define ratio

A

fraction representing relationship between 2 numbers

31
Q

define rate

A

state of health in a specific group of people in a given time period - measurement

32
Q

rate calculation

A

number of events in a population at a specific period/total population

33
Q

crude mortality rate calculation

A

number of deaths occurring in 1 yr/midyear population

34
Q

cause specific mortality rate calculation

A

number of deaths from a stated cause (cardiovascular disease) in 1 yr/midyear population

35
Q

age specific mortality rate calculation

A

number of people in a specific age group (ages 5-15) dying in 1 yr/midyear population of the specific age group

36
Q

infant mortality rate calculation

A

number of death under 1 yr of age in 1 yr/number of live births in the same year

37
Q

infant mortality rate is used as greatest indicator of health in certain country, t or f

A

true - reflects how healthy Mom is

38
Q

define incidence rates

A

new cases in a community

39
Q

define prevalence

A

who already has it - number of existing cases

40
Q

*define sensitivity

A

true positive - ability of a test to find those that have a disease

41
Q

*define specificity

A

true negatives - ability of a test to find those who truly do not have a disease

42
Q

term for incidence rate in exposed group and the incidence rate in the non-exposed group

A

relative risk ratio

43
Q

West Nile Virus is endemic to summer time in North Eastern U.S., T or F

A

True

44
Q

Malaria is endemic to Ecuadorian parts of the world, T or F

A

True

45
Q

host factor that influences peoples malarial infections

A

**genetic traits - sickle cell trait is protective against malaria

46
Q

secondary prevention of tuberculosis

A

PPD plus chest x-ray (white infiltrates)

47
Q

primary prevention of tuberculosis

A

vaccine or PPE (personal protective equipment, masks) - will get positive PPD

48
Q

is PPD sensitive or specific

A

sensitive; chest x-ray is specific

49
Q

Tertiary prevention of tuberculosis

A

rifampin and INH

50
Q

what are behavior change models

A

models that assist clients, groups and communities to redirect activities toward health and wellness

51
Q

how many behavior change models are there

A

3

52
Q

what are the 3 behavior change models

A

learning model
health belief model
trans-theoretical model

53
Q

what is the learning model

A

people do things that reward them - incremental steps towards a final goal

54
Q

what is the health belief model

A

Cues (r/t smoking) - friends/drinking
Barriers - friends do it/habit
Benefits - lower risk for lung cancer

55
Q

what is the trans-theoretical model (weight loss, smoking)

A

Precontemplation - grandma smoked never got lung cxr, lived forever
Contemplation - know I need to stop smoking, but its working for me right now
Preparation - quitting on sons birthday
Action - i quit yesterday
Maintenance - I’ve been sober for 6 months
Relapse - I just used again after being sober for 6 months

56
Q

when asking questions to find (smokers) you are doing which type of prevention

A

Secondary prevention - to intervene at an early stage of disease

57
Q

what is motivational interviewing***

A

Client-centered communication to elicit change
helps clients explore/resolve ambivalence to change
ADDRESSES AMBIVALENCE
move from pre-contemplation to contemplation

58
Q

“motivation for change occurs when people perceive a discrepancy between where they are and where they want to be” T or F

A

True

59
Q

descriptive studies describe

A

Distribution - disease according to person, place, time

summarizes health event

60
Q

analytic studies investigate

A

Determinant - causes and associations between factors (the why)

61
Q

cohort studies look at (analytic)

A

graduates of nursing school from a certain year(s), follows them for life

62
Q

cross-sectional studies look at (analytic)

A

cross - section of student population right now, assess for (risky behaviors/smoking..)

63
Q

retrospective studies look at (analytic)

A

incidence of disease process in a specific year (looking back)

64
Q

analytical studies are trying to find

A

causation - the why

65
Q

2 types of analytical studies

A

Cohort studies - following over a period of time

Case-Control studies - retrospective

66
Q

golden standard of research studies

A

experimental designs

67
Q

2 categories of experimental designs

A
preventative intervention (primary) - before exposure to disease, tests and intervention
Therapeutic intervention (secondary) - those currently experiencing disease, testing interventions
68
Q

best way for you to know research is valid

A

having a control group

69
Q

elisa HIV

A

specific

70
Q

western blot HIV

A

sensitive - start off with