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Flashcards in EQ3 ; Water insecurity ; causes Deck (15)
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1

Water insecurity

the capacity for a population to safeguard sustainable access to adequate quantities and qualities of water for sustaining livelihoods , human well being and socio economic development.

2

water scarcity

an imbalance between supply and demand , water resources are below 1000 m^3 per capita.
- has 2 strands ; physical and economic.

3

Difference between physical and economic water scarcity

physical - insufficient water to meet demand determined by physical factors like climate.
economic - people can't afford water even when it's available, determined by human, institutional and financial capital limit access to water despite sufficiency.

4

FEATURES OF WATER INSECURITY ;
What is the key feature of water insecurity?

growing mismatch between water supply and demand has led to a global pattern of water stress and water scarcity.

5

FEATURES OF WATER INSECURITY;
Explain the World water gap

- rapid pop,. growth in urban areas with limited supply of water + uneven distribution of global supply + deterioration of water supply = water insecurity
- Creates water availability gap between developing and wealthy nations.

6

12% of the worlds population consumes how much water ?

12% consumes 85% of the worlds water.

7

in 2015 what did the UN predict?

- a 55% increase in the demand for water, with a water gap 40% short in supply could exist by 2030.

8

CAUSES OF WATER INSECURITY :
name 4 causes of physical water insecurity

- climate variability
- salt water encroachment on coats
- natural flooding
- evapotranspiration

9

CAUSES OF WATER INSECURITY :
name 4 causes of human water insecurity

- over-abstraction from rivers, lakes and groundwater aquifers
- water contamination from agriculture.
- industrial water pollution
- privatisation of water

10

state 3 aspects of development which increase the demand for water.

- increasing population and urbanisation - with projected 55% increase in demand by 2030 , leaving the world 40% short in supply.
- improving living standards
- agriculture - 70% of water developing countries consumed.

11

PHYSICAL CAUSES OF WATER INSECURITY :
give stats to support argument that climate variability contributes .

- climate affect distribution of global water supply
- equatorial regions having highest total volume = water secure
- increase variability due to short term climate change = affects runoff, aquifer recharge and water quality
- 66% of the world live in areas receiving 25% of world's rainfall.

12

HUMAN CAUSES OF WATER INSECURITY :
agricultural contamination and over abstraction

- global green revolution approach increased agri. prod. worldwide in late 1960's , increase reliance by farmers on water polluting chemicals from pesticides to fertilisers for productivity = eutrophication = ecological damage
- nearly 90% of India's groundwater is extracted for irrigation in agri. and 2/3rds pop. directly dependent on agri.
- India avg GDP growth at 6% and has 3rd PPP in world/.

13

HUMAN CAUSES OF WATER INSECURITY :
Industrial water pollution

- = untreated sewage and urban runoff and high vol of waste water.
- dumping of toxic pollutants like asbestos and lead, oils don't dissolve in water = disrupts marine ecosystems
- developing countries suffer the most with an estimated 905 of waste water produced discharged directly into rivers = water borne dis.
- china dumps ovr 40 % of it's sewerage and industrial waste into the Yangtze every year.

14

FUTURE PROJECTIONS IN WATER SCARCITY :
el nino patterns and projections

- more recently super el niño's that have broken average temperature records have been occurring and are projected to increase in intensity and duration as global temps rise.

15

FUTURE PROJECTIONS IN WATER SCARCITY :
future for pop. water shortages ?

2/3rds of the world's pop. may face water shortages .